Animal Toxins and Human Disease: From Single Component to Venomics, from Biochemical Characterization to Disease mechanisms, from Crude Venom Utilization to Rational Drug Design
Contributor(s):: Qiu-Min Lu, Ren Lai, Yun Zhang
Many animals produced a diversity of venoms and secretions to adapt the changes of environments through the long history of evolution. The components including a large quantity of specific and highly active peptides and proteins have become good research models for protein structure-function and...
Intercat aggression: a retrospective study examining types of aggression, sexes of fighting pairs, and effectiveness of treatment
Contributor(s):: Lindell, E. M., Erb, H. N., Houpt, K. A.
48 cases of intercat aggression, presented to the Animal Behaviour Clinic at New York State College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University between 1988 and 1994, were examined retrospectively. Clients were contacted by telephone so that the outcome of the treatment programme could be...
Lithium residue in milk from doses used to condition taste aversions and effects on nursing calves
Contributor(s):: Ralphs, M. H.
In the 1st trial, 3 lactating Hereford cows with calves 4-7 months of age were gavaged with lithium chloride at 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg liveweight. Milk yield and lithium concentration in blood serum and milk were measured at intervals up to 96 h after treatment. Milk yield decreased by 20% the...
The responsiveness of sows to their piglets in relation to the length of parturition and the involvement of endogenous opioids
Contributor(s):: Jarvis, S., McLean, K. A., Calvert, S. K., Deans, L. A., Chirnside, J., Lawrence, A. B.
The aim of this study was to describe maternal behaviour in the pig and to investigate the effect of endogenous opioids on maternal responsiveness. The behaviour of 16 Large White x Landrace female pigs was recorded around farrowing. The pig's posture and her response when piglets were present at...
Canine dirofilariasis: 547 clinical cases treated first with dithiazanine iodide then with thiacetarsamide sodium
Contributor(s):: Garlick, N. L., Beck, A. M., Bryan, R. K.
Behavioural effects of PGF2 alpha in the non-pregnant sow
Contributor(s):: Blackshaw, J. K., Smith, I. D.
Hormonal influences on conditioned fear in pigs
Contributor(s):: Dantzer, R., Mormede, P.
Studies of the pharmacological control of drinking in the pig
Contributor(s):: Stephens, D. B., Sharman, D. F., Ingram, D. L.
Conditioned taste aversions: how sick must a ruminant get before it learns about toxicity in foods?
Contributor(s):: Toit, J. T. du, Provenza, F. D., Nastis, A.
To determine if the food-avoidance learning abilities of large herbivores are as poorly developed as has previously been assumed, the relationship was investigated between the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) by sheep and the dose of gastrointestinal poison (LiCl) administered...
Disorders in the feeding behaviour of fattening bulls
Contributor(s):: Sambraus, H. H.
For labour-saving reasons, fattening bulls in West Germany are commonly housed on slatted floors and fed only on maize silage and concentrates. Bulls kept under these conditions quite frequently show disturbances associated with feeding behaviour. In four fattening-bull enterprises 2 of the...
Effects of mixing unfamiliar individuals and of azaperone on the social behaviour of finishing pigs
Contributor(s):: Tan, S. S. L., Shackleton, D. M.
The effects of mixing unfamiliar individuals were studied on the social behaviour of finishing pigs. The efficacy of the commercial tranquillizer Stresnil (azaperone) was also examined when mixing animals. Mixing pigs from different groups or litters significantly affected their social behaviour,...
Heart rate changes in loose and tethered sows around feeding
Contributor(s):: Schouten, W. G. P., Rushen, J., Passille, A. M. de
The effectiveness of animal repellents on dogs and cats in the laboratory and field
Contributor(s):: Wolski, T. R., Riter, R., Houpt, K. A.
"Poison-shyness" and "bait-shyness" developed by wild rats ( Rattus rattus L.). I. Methods for eliminating "shyness" caused by barium carbonate poisoning
Contributor(s):: Naheed, G., Khan, J. A.
Colonies of wild rats, were offered the choice between two baits-cereal grains, flours, mixtures, oily and sweet cereals, and also grain flour. The rats were poisoned in the preferred baits with barium carbonate (10 mg/g food; 20 mg/g food in oily baits) and then presented with the same choice of...
Maternal locoweed exposure in utero and as a neonate does not disrupt taste aversion learning in lambs
Contributor(s):: Pfister, J. A., Astorga, J. B., Panter, K. E., Molyneux, R. J.
Taste aversion learning has been suggested as a sensitive measure of behavioural toxicosis. The purpose of this study was to determine if maternal locowood ingestion would adversely influence the ability of lambs to acquire and retain a conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Pregnant and lactating...
Normal and more highly reactive horses. II. The effect of handling and reserpine on the cardiac response to stimuli
Contributor(s):: McCann, J. S., Heird, J. C., Bell, R. W., Lutherer, L. O.
A split-plot experiment evaluated the effect of handling and a tranquillizer, reserpine, on the autonomic heart-rate response of yearling horses to various stimuli. The emotionality levels of 32 Quarter-Horse yearlings were rated by 4 experienced horsemen on a scale from 1 to 4 (1 = most nervous...
Pharmaceutical control of pain in large animals
Contributor(s):: Otto, K. A., Short, C. E.
Potential of three rodenticides to induce conditioned aversion to their baits in the Indian mole rat, Bandicota bengalensis
Contributor(s):: Parshad, V. R., Kochar, J. K.
Selective grazing behaviour in horses: development of methodology and preliminary use of tests to measure individual grazing ability
Contributor(s):: Marinier, S. L., Alexander, A. J.
The selective grazing behaviour of 5 plant species measured by the "two-hand" method by 12 horses of various breeds 1.5 to 18 years old was investigated. Results were analysed in relation to 5 measures of choosing behaviour: the strength of the choice; correspondence between first bite and the...
Socially induced diet preference ameliorates conditioned food aversion in lambs
Contributor(s):: Provenza, F. D., Burritt, E. A.
To determine whether a socially induced diet preference could ameliorate a conditioned food aversion in lambs one group was conditioned to avoid the shrub Cercocarpus montanus by giving them lithium chloride, a toxin that produces strong food aversions, following shrub ingestion. On day 1 of...