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  1. Claw removal and feeding ability in the edible crab, Cancer pagurus : implications for fishery practice

    Contributor(s):: Patterson, L., Dick, J. T. A., Elwood, R. W.

    Feeding ability and motivation were assessed in the edible crab, Cancer pagurus, to investigate how the fishery practice of de-clawing may affect live crabs returned to the sea. Crabs were either induced to autotomise one claw, or were only handled, before they were offered food. Initially,...

  2. Estimating the diet of urban birds: the problems of anthropogenic food and food digestibility

    Contributor(s):: Ottoni, I., Oliveira, F. F. R. de, Young, R. J.

    A variety of methods exist for assessing the diets of wild birds, each of which has its strengths and weaknesses. The objective of this study was to compare diet data collected in parallel by behavioural observations and faecal analysis from an urban population of Penelope superciliaris...

  3. Resting and social behaviour of dairy heifers housed in slatted floor pens with different sized bedded lying areas

    Contributor(s):: Nielsen, L. H., Mogensen, L., Krohn, C., Hindhede, J., Sorensen, J. T.

    The hypothesis that an increase in the straw bedded resting area for group housed heifers would increase synchronization of resting behaviour and decrease aggressive and abnormal behaviour was tested. An experiment was conducted on 2 Danish commercial dairy farms with 20 Danish Friesian heifers...

  4. Animal behaviour, animal welfare and the scientific study of affect. (Special Issue: Animal suffering and welfare.)

    Contributor(s):: Fraser, D.

    Many questions about animal welfare involve the affective states of animals (pain, fear, distress) and people look to science to clarify these issues as a basis for practices, policies and standards. However, the science of the mid twentieth century tended to be silent on matters of animal affect...

  5. Effect of infestation with Psoroptes ovis on the nocturnal rubbing and lying behaviour of housed sheep

    Contributor(s):: Berriatua, E., French, N. P., Broster, C. E., Morgan, K. L., Wall, R.

    The relationship between Psoroptes ovis infestation and the nocturnal rubbing and lying behaviour of sheep was examined as part of a longitudinal study of sheep scab. A total of 40 non-infested, scab-naive sheep were divided into six groups of between 6 and 20 individuals and each group was...

  6. Grooming and control of fleas in cats

    Contributor(s):: Eckstein, R. A., Hart, B. L.

    Oral grooming is common in cats, as in rodent and bovid species where grooming has been shown to be effective in removing lice and ticks. In Experiment 1, we examined the effectiveness of oral grooming in removing fleas which are the main ectoparasite of cats. Elizabethan collars (E-collars)...

  7. Motivational trade-offs and potential pain experience in hermit crabs

    Contributor(s):: Appel, M., Elwood, R. W.

    One criterion of pain experience is that the emotional response to pain may be traded-off against other motivational requirements. This was tested in hermit crabs, housed in either preferred or unpreferred species of shells, by subjecting their abdomens to electric shocks of gradually increasing...

  8. Pain and stress in crustaceans? (Special Issue: Animal suffering and welfare.)

    Contributor(s):: Elwood, R. W., Barr, S., Patterson, L.

    We consider evidence that crustaceans might experience pain and stress in ways that are analogous to those of vertebrates. Various criteria are applied that might indicate a potential for pain experience: (1) a suitable central nervous system and receptors, (2) avoidance learning, (3) protective...

  9. Changes in the contents of adenine nucleotides and intermediates of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle in flight muscle of the locust upon flight and their relationship to the control of the cycle

    Contributor(s):: Rowan, A. N., Newsholme, E. A.

  10. Hygiene measures for animal-assisted interventions in hospitals, rehabilitation hospitals and retirement homes

    Contributor(s):: Hoffmann, C., Herr, C., Eikmann, T.

    Active or passive interactions with animals in animal-assisted interventions can be of great physical (reduction of hypertension, cardiac and circulatory troubles, muscle relaxation, pain relief etc.) and psychosocial (reduction of loneliness, fear and hostility, improvement of self-confidence)...

  11. Agricultural practices, ecology and ethics in the Third World

    Contributor(s):: Westra, L. S., Bowen, K. L., Behe, B. K.

    The increasing demand for horticultural products for nutritional and economic purposes by lesser developed countries (LDCs) is well documented. Technological demands of the LDCs producing horticultural products are also increasing. Pesticide use is an integral component of most agricultural...

  12. Conservation of biodiversity within Canadian agricultural landscapes: integrating habitat for wildlife

    Contributor(s):: Mineau, P., McLaughlin, A.

    Industrialized agriculture currently substitutes for many of the ecological functions of soil microorganisms, macroinvertebrates, wild plants, and vertebrate animals with high cost inputs of pesticides and fertilizers. Enhanced biological diversity potentially offers agricultural producers a...

  13. Face-fly pest intensity, fly-avoidance behavior (bunching) and grazing time in Holstein heifers

    Contributor(s):: Schmidtmann, E. T., Valla, M. E.

    In field studies in New York State in 1978-79, the relationship between feeding by adults of Musca autumnalis Deg., and fly-avoidance behaviour (bunching) and grazing time of heifers was examined in herds that were either exposed to the ambient pest intensity levels or treated with permethrin...

  14. Managing honeybee colonies to enhance the pollen-gathering stimulus from brood pheromones

    Contributor(s):: Free, J. B.

    When the hive entrance of a colony led directly into the brood area, foraging honeybees collected much more pollen, and so were potentially more valuable as pollinators, than when the hive entrance led into the storage area. This result supports the hypothesis that pollen collection may be...

  15. Pollination of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in Jamaica by honeybees and wasps

    Contributor(s):: Free, J. B., Raw, A., Williams, I. H.

    Numerous wasps (Polistes crinita) visited male and female flowers for nectar, but carried little pollen on their bodies, especially when visiting female flowers. Many wasps foraged for several hours on only one or two female flowers, repelling other wasps and honeybees; hence their behaviour...

  16. Refuge-seeking and pest avoidance by feral horses in desert and island environments

    Contributor(s):: Keiper, R. R., Berger, J.

    Patterns of resource exploitation were examined among 2 populations of feral horses in the USA, to investigate whether harassment by insects results in the use of 'refuge' sites to minimise pest pressures. In the first study site, Assateague, a barrier island off the Atlantic coast of Maryland...

  17. The effect on the foraging behaviour of honeybees of the relative locations of the hive entrance and brood combs

    Contributor(s):: Free, J. B., Williams, I. H.

    Hives consisted of a tier of 11-frame chambers and were provided with upper and lower entrances. Observations within hives were made via a glass floorboard. When a hive entrance opened directly on to the brood area of a colony, a greater proportion of bees using it collected pollen than when it...

  18. Effects of headfly ( Hydrotaea irritans Fallen) infestations and repellents on ear-flicking and head-shaking behaviour of farmed red deer ( Cervus elaphus L.)

    Contributor(s):: Woollard, T. H., Bullock, D. J.

    The effects of Hydrotaea irritans on farmed red deer in Scotland are described. The degree of irritation by headfly varied with the age and sex of the deer. Yearling hinds had higher ear-flicking rates than either yearling or adult stags. Both sexes of yearlings had higher head-shaking...

  19. Effects of fly disturbance on the behaviour of a population of reintroduced Przewalski horses ( Equus ferus przewalskii ) in Mongolia

    Contributor(s):: King, S. R. B., Gurnell, J.

    Flies constitute a cost to animals by feeding from them, passing on disease or by preventing them feeding effectively. These costs could be more severe to animals suffering from some kind of stress such as reintroduction as part of a conservation programme. This study focused on the effects of...

  20. Reproductive status and differential response to attacking insects in female reindeer

    Contributor(s):: Kojola, I.

    In Finland, the activity budgets (i.e. time spent lying, standing, feeding, walking and running) of lactating and yeld (i.e. barren, dry) female wild forest reindeer (Rangifer tarandus fennicus) during gadfly (Tabanidae) attacks were compared on 6 sunny afternoons during mid and late summer in...