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  1. Naturalness and conservation in France

    Contributor(s):: Schnitzler, A., Genot, J. C., Wintz, M., Hale, B. W.

    This article discusses the ecological and cultural criteria underlying the management practices for protected areas in France. It examines the evolution of French conservation from its roots in the 19th century, when it focused on the protection of scenic landscapes, to current times when the...

  2. Non-native species do threaten the natural environment

    Contributor(s):: Simberloff, D.

    Sagoff [See Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics (2005) 18, 215-236] argues, against growing empirical evidence, that major environmental impacts of non-native species are unproven. However, many such impacts, including extinctions of both island and continental species, have both...

  3. Not all animals are equal: differences in moral foundations for the Dutch veterinary policy on livestock and animals in nature reservations

    Contributor(s):: Waelbers, K., Stafleu, F., Brom, F. W. A.

    The Netherlands is a small country with many people and much livestock. As a result, animals in nature reservations are often living near cattle farms. Therefore, people from the agricultural practices are afraid that wild animals will infect domestic livestock with diseases like swine fever and...

  4. Opening up for participation in agro-biodiversity conservation: the expert-lay interplay in a Brazilian social movement

    Contributor(s):: Delgado, A.

    In science and environmental studies, there is a general concern for the democratization of the expert-lay interplay. However, the democratization of expertise does not necessarily lead to more sustainable decisions. If citizens do not take the sustainable choice, what should experts and decision...

  5. Risks associated with genetic modification: an annotated bibliography of peer reviewed natural science publications

    Contributor(s):: Weaver, S. A., Morris, M. C.

    An annotated bibliography is presented of peer-reviewed papers highlighting the human health, animal welfare, and environmental risks (concerning biodiversity in particular) associated with genetic modification. The bibliography is organized according to the nature of the risks in question: (1)...

  6. The design and implementation of sustainable plant diversity conservation program for alpine meadows and pastures

    Contributor(s):: Baumgartner, J., Hartmann, J.

    The paper describes the design and implementation of a plant biodiversity conservation programme that was developed under funding and time constraints for diverse ecological, social, and institutional environments. The biodiversity programme for alpine meadows and pastures in the Canton of the...

  7. The fat of the land: linking American food overconsumption, obesity, and biodiversity loss

    Contributor(s):: Cafaro, P. J., Primack, R. B., Zimdahl, R. L.

    Americans' excessive consumption of food harms their health and quality of life and also causes direct and indirect environmental degradation, through habitat loss and increased pollution from agricultural fertilizers and pesticides. We show here that reducing food consumption (and eating less...

  8. What is fair and equitable benefit-sharing?

    Contributor(s):: Jonge, B. de

    "Fair and equitable benefit-sharing" is one of the objectives of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity and the FAO International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. In essence, benefit-sharing holds that countries, farmers, and indigenous communities that grant access...

  9. Effects of economic downturns on mortality of wild African elephants

    Contributor(s):: Wittemyer, G.

    Declines in economic activity and associated changes in human livelihood strategies can increase threats of species overexploitation. This is exemplified by the effects of economic crises, which often drive intensification of subsistence poaching and greater reliance on natural resources. Whereas...

  10. Human behavior influences infectious disease emergence at the human-animal interface

    Contributor(s):: Alexander, K. A., McNutt, J. W.

    Although human behavior is frequently cited as a factor influencing the emergence of disease at the human-animal interface, few empirical studies have demonstrated this relationship. We compare humans and their domestic animals living in close proximity to populations of the endangered African...

  11. Human-wildlife conflicts influence attitudes but not necessarily behaviors: factors driving the poaching of bears in China

    Contributor(s):: Liu, Fang, McShea, W. J., Garshelis, D. L., Zhu, XiaoJian, Wang, DaJun, Shao, LiangKun

  12. Behavioural responses of cattle to shared foraging with wild herbivores in an East African rangeland

    Contributor(s):: Odadi, W. O., Okeyo-Owuor, J. B., Young, T. P.

    We assessed whether prior foraging by wild herbivores affected foraging behaviour of cattle in Laikipia rangeland, Kenya, during February 2001, August 2001 and February 2002. The study compared cattle bite rate, step rate and bites per step in plots exclusively accessible to cattle and those...

  13. Behavioural responses of juvenile steller sea lions to abdominal surgery: developing an assessment of post-operative pain

    Contributor(s):: Walker, K. A., Horning, M., Mellish, J. A. E., Weary, D. M.

    Marking and tracking of marine mammals is required to gain a better understanding of life history traits; however, some marking procedures used are likely painful. Recent technological advances include intra-abdominally implanted archival telemetry devices for the life-long monitoring of...

  14. Correlates of self-directed and stereotypic behaviours in captive red-capped mangabeys ( Cercocebus torquatus torquatus )

    Contributor(s):: Reamer, L., Tooze, Z., Coulson, C., Semple, S.

    The quantification of behaviours linked to anxiety or stress provides a powerful means to address applied questions related to the well-being of captive animals. This study explored correlates of two such behaviours - self-directed (SDB) and stereotypic behaviour (STB) - among captive red-capped...

  15. Eliminative behaviour of free-ranging horses: do they show latrine behaviour or do they defecate where they graze?

    Contributor(s):: Lamoot, I., Callebaut, J., Degezelle, T., Demeulenaere, E., Laquiere, J., Vandenberghe, C., Hoffmann, M.

    In contrast to horses in pastures, it is thought that free-ranging horses do not perform latrine behaviour, i.e. a behavioural pattern whereby the animals graze and defecate in separate areas. However, few studies deal with this particular subject, reporting contrasting conclusions. We...

  16. Increased reproductive output in stereotypic captive Rhabdomys females: potential implications for captive breeding

    Contributor(s):: Jones, M. A., Lierop, M. van, Mason, G., Pillay, N.

    Captive animal populations can diverge considerably from populations in the wild, despite the animals not being deliberately domesticated. If the phenotypes which are of benefit in captivity are heritable, the genotypes of captive-stock can diverge swiftly and substantially from wild-stock. Using...

  17. Influences of immunocontraception on time budgets, social behavior, and body condition in feral horses

    Contributor(s):: Ransom, J. I., Cade, B. S., Hobbs, N. T.

    Managers concerned with shrinking habitats and limited resources for wildlife seek effective tools for limiting population growth in some species. Fertility control is one such tool, yet little is known about its impacts on the behavioral ecology of wild, free-roaming animals. We investigated...

  18. New Zealand's inclusive science-based system for setting animal welfare standards. (Special Issue: Farm animal welfare since the Brambell report.)

    Contributor(s):: Mellor, D. J., Bayvel, A. C. D.

    Inclusiveness and science were, and are, essential contributors to the development and operation of New Zealand's current system for managing animal welfare at a national level. The involvement of individuals and groups with diverse interests, having aligned, complementary or opposing views, is...

  19. Testing a model for predicting primate crop-raiding using crop- and farm-specific risk values

    Contributor(s):: Nijman, V., Nekaris, K. A. I.

    Crop-raiding by primates is increasingly known to cause conflict between humans and primates, and due to their opportunism, adaptability, intelligence and manipulative abilities, primates can be significant agricultural pests. Levels of crop-raiding are dependent on time of year, crop type, size...

  20. Threshold concentrations of an anthraquinone-based repellent for Canada geese, red-winged blackbirds, and ring-necked pheasants

    Contributor(s):: Werner, S. J., Carlson, J. C., Tupper, S. K., Santer, M. M., Linz, G. M.

    Wildlife repellents provide a non-lethal alternative for managing the monetary impacts of agricultural depredation. For the purpose of developing of an effective avian repellent, we established repellency thresholds of an anthraquinone-based repellent for Canada geese (Branta canadensis),...