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How tall should a mink cage be? Using animals’ preferences for different ceiling heights to improve cage design
Contributor(s):: Díez-León, María, Quinton, Margaret, Mason, Georgia
Regulations and guidelines assume that taller cages are better for mink, because they permit more diverse postures (e.g. standing upright) and freedom to move. New Canadian Codes of Practice therefore stipulate cage ceiling heights of at least 38cm, while in Europe cages must be 46cm or taller....
The effects of cage color and light intensity on rat affect during heterospecific play
Contributor(s):: LaFollette, Megan R., Swan, Melissa P., Smith, Rebecca K., Hickman, Debra L., Gaskill, Brianna N.
Prisoners in War: Zoos and Zoo Animals During Human Conflict 1870-1947
Contributor(s):: Clelly Johnson
Animals are sentient beings capable of many of the same feelings experienced by humans. They mourn a loss, they feel love and loyalty, and they experience fear. During wars and conflicts, fear is a prevailing emotion among humans, who worry for their wellbeing. Animals,...
A Decade of Progress toward Ending the Intensive Confinement of Farm Animals in the United States
Contributor(s):: Sara Shields, Paul Shapiro, Andrew Rowan
In this paper, the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) farm animal protection work over the preceding decade is described from the perspective of the organization. Prior to 2002, there were few legal protections for animals on the farm, and in 2005, a new campaign at the HSUS began to...
Think Outside the Cage: Moving Towards New Understandings of Companion Rabbits
Contributor(s):: Ruthann Drummond
Rabbits are the third most common companion mammal in Western homes, and their popularity continues to rise. However, they are also one of the most broadly used animal resources around the world, commonly being bred for their food, their fur, and their utility as biological models in animal...
Blue foxes' ( Vulpes lagopus) motivation to gain access and interact with various resources
Contributor(s):: Koistinen, T., Korhonen, H. T., Hamalainen, E., Mononen, J.
We analysed the willingness of blue foxes ( Vulpes lagopus) to work for and utilise five resources: a platform, wooden block, sand floor, nest box and empty space. Ten juvenile blue fox males were housed singly in apparatus consisting of three cages connected with one-way doors through the walls...
Environmentally enriching American mink ( Neovison vison) increases lymphoid organ weight and skeletal symmetry, and reveals differences between two sub-types of stereotypic behaviour
Contributor(s):: Diez-Leon, M., Bursian, S., Galicia, D., Napolitano, A., Palme, R., Mason, G.
Enrichment studies for wild carnivores (e.g., in zoos) are often short-term, use enrichments of unknown motivational significance, and focus on glucocorticoids and stereotypic behaviour (SB), ignoring other stress-relevant variables. Our study assessed the broad behavioural and physiological...
Practical physical and behavioral measures to assess the socialization spectrum of cats in a shelter-like setting during a three day period
Contributor(s):: Slater, M., Garrison, L., Miller, K., Weiss, E., Makolinski, K., Drain, N., Mirontshuk, A.
Animal welfare organizations routinely accept large numbers of cats with unknown histories, and whose backgrounds vary from well-socialized pets to cats that have had little or no contact with humans. Agencies are challenged with making the determination of socialization level in a highly...
Effect of cage type on fecal corticosterone concentration in buck rabbits during the reproductive cycle
Contributor(s):: Cornale, P., Macchi, E., Renna, M., Prola, L., Perona, G., Mimosi, A.
Fecal corticosterone concentration (FCC) was measured in 14 buck rabbits individually housed in standard-dimension cages (SC) or in bigger cages (BC; with a volume more than double that of SC and equipped with a plastic foot mat) during 4 consecutive reproductive cycles. Cage type and...
On-farm evaluation of the Salmon Welfare Index Model (SWIM 1.0): theoretical and practical considerations
Contributor(s):: Folkedal, O., Pettersen, J. M., Bracke, M., Stien, L. H., Nilsson, J., Martins, C., Breck, O., Midtlyng, P. J., Kristiansen, T.
The present study investigated the operational feasibility of the recently developed Salmon Welfare Index Model (SWIM 1.0) designed for Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L) in production cages. Ten salmon farms containing spring smolts were visited twice, first between May and June the first year in...
Dustbathing, pecking and scratching behaviours of laying hens in furnished cages are enhanced by the presence of rubber mats and litter distribution
Contributor(s):: Guinebretiere, M., Michel, V., Arnould, C.
Furnished cages for laying hens exist in a wide variety of sizes and designs and should be equipped to allow hens to express some of their behavioural priorities. European Council Directive 1999/74/EC stipulates that litter must be provided for pecking and scratching but the type of litter and...
Evaluation of environmental and intrinsic factors that contribute to stereotypic behavior in captive rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta)
Contributor(s):: Gottlieb, D. H., Maier, A., Coleman, K.
Full body repetitive behaviors, known as motor stereotypic behaviors (MSBs), are one of the most commonly seen abnormal behaviors in captive non-human primates, and are frequently used as a behavioral measure of well-being. The main goal of this paper was to examine the role of environmental...
Behaviour, wounds, weight loss and adrenal weight of rabbit does as affected by semi-group housing
Contributor(s):: Buijs, S., Maertens, L., Hermans, K., Vangeyte, J., Tuyttens, F. A. M.
Group housing is often assumed to improve the welfare of gregarious species. Whether this is actually the case depends on the advantages (e.g. more opportunity for social and locomotor behaviour) and disadvantages (e.g. increased fighting and wounding) induced by the specific housing type. We...
Stereotypic mice are aggressed by their cage-mates, and tend to be poor demonstrators in social learning tasks
Contributor(s):: Harper, L., Choleris, E., Ervin, K., Fureix, C., Reynolds, K., Walker, M., Mason, G.
Stereotypic behaviours (SBs) are linked with behavioural inflexibility and resemble symptoms of autism, suggesting that stereotypic animals could have autistic-like social impairments. SBs are also common in caged mice. We therefore hypothesised relationships between stereotypic and social...
Dustbathing behavior: do ectoparasites matter?
Contributor(s):: Vezzoli, G., Mullens, B. A., Mench, J. A.
A presumed function of dustbathing behavior is to remove ectoparasites. Providing dustbathing substrates in furnished cages for laying hens might therefore offer an alternative to pesticide use to reduce ectoparasite populations. We investigated the effectiveness of dustbathing substrates for...
An ethological approach to determining housing requirements of gamebirds in raised laying units
Contributor(s):: Matheson, S. M., Donbavand, J., Sandilands, V., Pennycott, T., Turner, S. P.
Each year, the UK rears around 20-30 million pheasants and 3-6 million red-legged partridges for shooting purposes. However, welfare organisations and some members of the gamebird industry itself have raised concerns about the use of raised laying units for breeding gamebirds. Although the...
Stereotypic behaviours in Melopsittacus undulatus: behavioural consequences of social and spatial limitations
Contributor(s):: Polverino, G., Manciocco, A., Vitale, A., Alleva, E.
The demand for parrots for pet and scientific purposes is an increasing phenomenon. Yet, the cognitive complexity of these animals makes it difficult to fully satisfy their eco-ethological needs in captivity, and strategies commonly adopted for their husbandry are often unsuccessful in...
Evidence of competition for nest sites by laying hens in large furnished cages
Contributor(s):: Hunniford, M. E., Torrey, S., Bedecarrats, G., Duncan, I. J. H., Widowski, T. M.
Furnished cages are designed to accommodate behaviour considered important to laying hens, particularly nesting behaviour. Few researchers have studied the degree of competition for nest sites or the extent to which the amount of nest space affects nesting behaviour in large furnished cages. We...
The effects of witnessing managemental procedures during the light versus the dark phase of the light cycle on behaviour, performance and welfare of laboratory rats
Contributor(s):: Abou-Ismail, U. A., Mohamed, R. A., El-Kholya, S. Z.
Research has indicated that witnessing managemental procedures are stressful to laboratory rats. Yet there has been little investigation into whether the time of witnessing these procedures affects behaviour and welfare in these animals. Ninety-six rats, representing two batches, were used in...