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A cage without a view increases stress and impairs cognitive performance in rats
Contributor(s):: Harris, A. P., D'Eath, R. B., Healy, S. D.
Single housing is believed to be chronically stressful and to have a negative impact on welfare and cognition in rats (Rattus norvegicus). However, single housing does not consistently evoke stress-like responses nor does it consistently impair cognitive performance. In an experiment in which all...
A comparative study of the well-being of piglets reared conventionally and in cages
Contributor(s):: Putten, G. Van, Dammers, J.
A comparison of the behaviour and production of laying hens in experimental and conventional battery cages
Contributor(s):: Bareham, J. R.
In a small-scale study an experimental cage was tested for its effect on behaviour, production, and feather and foot damage in groups of six birds per cage. The experimental cages, when compared with conventional types, had a horizontal floor, were extended in height, had food and water provided...
A comparison of the behaviour of solitary and group-housed budgerigars
Contributor(s):: Nicol, C. J., Pope, S. J.
The behaviour of budgerigars housed in aviaries in a group of 6, or caged individually was studied over 2 months. Budgerigars in the aviary consumed more food and were more active, performing more wing stretching and flying. Caged birds vocalized more. When tested individually, the aviary birds...
A comparison of the use of resting platforms and nest boxes in growing farmed silver foxes ( Vulpes vulpes )
Contributor(s):: Mononen, J., Korhonen, H., Harri, M., Kasanen, S.
The use of the interior and roof of a nest box and the use of various types of resting platform were studied in 50 juvenile silver foxes of both sexes housed singly in traditional fox cages (length, 115 cm; width, 105 cm; height, 70 cm). The experiment was carried out from early July to the end...
A Decade of Progress toward Ending the Intensive Confinement of Farm Animals in the United States
Contributor(s):: Sara Shields, Paul Shapiro, Andrew Rowan
In this paper, the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) farm animal protection work over the preceding decade is described from the perspective of the organization. Prior to 2002, there were few legal protections for animals on the farm, and in 2005, a new campaign at the HSUS began to...
A note on indoor and outdoor housing preferences of common marmosets ( Callithrix jacchus )
Contributor(s):: Pines, M. K., Kaplan, G., Rogers, L. J.
This study examined the preferences of six pairs of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) from the colony at the University of New England, Australia, between their home cage and either a large, enriched, indoor room or a smaller outdoor cage. When given free access to move between their home...
A note on the effects of an unobstructed view on cage choices in farmed foxes
Contributor(s):: Mononen, J., Harri, M., Sepponen, J., Ahola, L.
Eight farmed adult female silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 8 blue foxes (Alopex lagopus) were given the option of a cage with an open view and a cage with a partly obstructed view in a 14-day choice test. Silver foxes spent 61 +or- 16% and blue foxes 68 +or- 18% of their daily time in the cage...
A note on the influence of visual conspecific contact on the behaviour of sheltered dogs
Contributor(s):: Wells, D. L., Hepper, P. G.
The effects of visual contact with other dogs on the behaviour of dogs housed in a rescue shelter were examined. 407 dogs were studied: 212 dogs were housed in cages that allowed for visual contact with dogs in opposite pens; 195 dogs were deprived of visual contact with other dogs by being...
A targeted approach to developing environmental enrichment for two strains of laboratory mice
Contributor(s):: Nicol, C. J., Brocklebank, S., Mendl, M., Sherwin, C. M.
Previous studies on environmental enrichment have generally placed a purported enrichment in the cage and observed changes in behavioural and physiological indicators of welfare. However, many of these 'enrichments' are not purposely designed, or appear to be designed with anthropomorphic or...
Abnormal Behavior in Caged Birds Kept as Pets
Contributor(s):: van Hoek, Caroline S., Ten Cate, Carel
There are a limited number of studies dealing with abnormal behavior in caged birds kept as pets. However, these studies demonstrate the presence of abnormal behavior in both songbirds and parrots. Ethological studies on these birds, as well as studies on domestic and zoo birds, indicate that...
Abnormal behavior in caged birds kept as pets
Contributor(s):: Hoek, C. S. van, Cate, C. ten
Acute effects of cage cleaning at different frequencies on laboratory rat behaviour and welfare
Contributor(s):: Burn, C. C., Peters, A., Mason, G. J.
Aggressive behaviour and its relation to oviposition in the domestic fowl
Contributor(s):: Hughes, B. O.
Hens in battery cages behave differently from those housed in pens. Laying hens of two strains were housed in cages or pens and the incidence of aggression before and after laying was studied. Little aggression was seen in stable groups, so a strange bird was introduced to stimulate aggressive...
Agonistic and mating behavior of adult chickens modified by social and physical environments
Contributor(s):: Craig, J. V., Bhagwat, A. L.
Agonistic and mating behaviour in 48 flocks of adult White Leghorn fowls was observed for 8 wk. A factorial experimental design allowed evaluation of behaviour as affected by genetic strain, presence or absence of males , age group (initial ages of 32 or 48 wk), and less crowded floor pens...
Agonistic behavior of caged chickens related to group size and area per bird
Contributor(s):: Al-Rawi, B., Craig, J. V.
The effects of group size and area per bird on agonistic activity were studied in White Leghorn pullets. Group sizes were four, eight, 14, and 28, with constant area, feeder, and watering space per bird. Agonistic acts and time spent in four categories of general activity were recorded. Frequency...
Allowing captive marmosets to choose the size and position of their nest box
Contributor(s):: Hosey, G. R., Jacques, M., Burton, M.
Preferences for nest box size and position were tested in two groups of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus jacchus). One group consisted of a mother, her two adult sons and one adult daughter, and the other comprised a breeding pair, their two adult sons and two adult daughters. In a pre-test...
An ethological approach to determining housing requirements of gamebirds in raised laying units
Contributor(s):: Matheson, S. M., Donbavand, J., Sandilands, V., Pennycott, T., Turner, S. P.
Each year, the UK rears around 20-30 million pheasants and 3-6 million red-legged partridges for shooting purposes. However, welfare organisations and some members of the gamebird industry itself have raised concerns about the use of raised laying units for breeding gamebirds. Although the...
An ethological approach to housing requirements of golden hamsters, Mongolian gerbils and fat sand rats in the laboratory - a review
Contributor(s):: Sorensen, D. B., Krohn, T., Hansen, H. N., Ottesen, J. L., Hansen, A. K.
When housing hamsters and gerbils little has been done to identify the preferences of these species. The solitary nature of fat sand rats and hamsters is often discordant with housing practices in animal laboratories. This article provides a comparison of the behaviour of wild-living animals with...
Animal welfare issues in the poultry industry: is there a lesson to be learned? (Special issue: food animal husbandry and the new millennium)
Contributor(s):: Duncan, I. J. H.
Many of the conditions in which poultry live and the procedures to which they are subjected compromise their welfare. This article describes these welfare problems in the hope that they may serve as warnings to the rest of animal agriculture, which then might take steps to avoid the same...