Behavioural responses of fish larvae modulated by analgesic drugs after a stress exposure
Contributor(s):: Lopez-Luna, Javier, Canty, Martin N., Al-Jubouri, Qussay, Al-Nuaimy, Waleed, Sneddon, Lynne U.
Fish are known to respond to a wide range of irritant chemicals, displaying clear behavioural changes after exposure to potentially noxious stimuli. Recent evidence shows that these agents can have an impact on larval forms of fish. However, very little information is available on the effects of...
Assessment of aversion and unconsciousness during exposure to carbon dioxide at high concentration in lambs
Contributor(s):: Rodriguez, P., Dalmau, A., Manteca, X., Litvan, H., Jensen, E. W., Velarde, A.
The most widely used stunning method in sheep is electrical. However, in lambs, this method leads to rupture of the blood vessels, provoking ecchymoses. In pigs ( Sus scrofa), the use of CO 2-stunning systems has increased in popularity due to positive effects on meat quality and animal welfare...
Testing refrigeration trucks for the emergency evacuation of companion animals
Contributor(s):: Langman, V. A., Ellifrit, N., Sime, D., Rowe, M., Hogue, A.
The purpose of this study was to quantify the changes in oxygen (O 2) and carbon dioxide (CO 2) in sealed refrigerator trucks scheduled to be used for transporting companion animals (dogs and cats) during an emergency evacuation. A total of 122 nonhuman animals (total weight=1,248 kg) housed in...
Nutritional ecology of obesity: from humans to companion animals
Contributor(s):: Raubenheimer, D., Machovsky-Capuska, G. E., Gosby, A. K., Simpson, S.
We apply nutritional geometry, a framework for modelling the interactive effects of nutrients on animals, to help understand the role of modern environments in the obesity pandemic. Evidence suggests that humans regulate the intake of protein energy (PE) more strongly than non-protein energy...
Rat aversion to sevoflurane and isoflurane
Contributor(s):: Bertolus, J. B., Nemeth, G., Makowska, I. J., Weary, D. M.
Virtually all rodents used in research are eventually euthanized. Best practice is to anaesthetize these animals before euthanasia using a halogenated anaesthetic such as isoflurane. Exposure to isoflurane is aversive, but less so than exposure to the commonly used carbon dioxide. Sevoflurane is...
Testing three measures of mouse insensibility following induction with isoflurane or carbon dioxide gas for a more humane euthanasia
Contributor(s):: Moody, C. M., Makowska, I. J., Weary, D. M.
Laboratory mice are commonly killed via exposure to gradually increasing concentrations of isoflurane and carbon dioxide (CO 2) gas. Once rendered insensible using isoflurane or CO 2, a high concentration of CO 2 is used to decrease time to death. When the switch from isoflurane to a high flow...
Killing of spent laying hens using CO 2 in poultry barns
Contributor(s):: Berg, C., Yngvesson, J., Nimmermark, S., Sandstrom, V., Algers, B.
In Sweden, laying hens are killed using the following methods: (i) traditional slaughter; (ii) on-farm with CO 2 in a mobile container combined with a grinder; or (iii) with CO 2 inside the barn. The number of hens killed using the latter method has increased. During these killings a veterinarian...
Humane killing of nonhuman animals for disease control purposes
Contributor(s):: Raj, M.
Reports and guidelines produced by international institutions such as the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE, 2005) describe various methods of killing nonhuman animals. Selection and implementation of a killing method may involve several factors. Preventing or minimizing risk to human...
Effects of stocking rate on measures of efficacy and welfare during carbon dioxide gas euthanasia of young pigs
Contributor(s):: Fiedler, K. J., Parsons, R. L., Sadler, L. J., Millman, S. T.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of chamber stocking rate on facets of animal welfare and efficacy during gas euthanasia of young pigs ( Sus scrofa domesticus). Crossbred pigs (390 neonatal and 270 weaned) designated for euthanasia at production farms were randomly assigned...
Are severely depressed suckling pigs resistant to gas euthanasia?
Contributor(s):: Sadler, L. J., Karriker, L. A., Schwartz, K. J., Johnson, A. K., Widowski, T. M., Wang, C., Sutherland, M. A., Millman, S. T.
Severely depressed pigs exhibit differences in a number of important parameters that may affect gas euthanasia, including decreased respiration rate and tidal volume. Hence, the objectives of this study were to assess the efficacy and animal welfare implications of gas euthanasia of suckling pigs...
Killing wild geese with carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide and argon
Contributor(s):: Gerritzen, M. A., Reimert, H. G. M., Lourens, A., Bracke, M. B. M., Verhoeven, M. T. W.
Assessing pig welfare at stunning in Swedish commercial abattoirs using CO<sub>2</sub> group-stun methods
Contributor(s):: Atkinson, S., Velarde, A., Llonch, P., Algers, B.
Aversion to nitrogen and carbon dioxide mixtures for stunning pigs
Contributor(s):: Llonch, P., Dalmau, A., Rodriguez, P., Manteca, X., Velarde, A.
Aversion to the inhalation of nitrogen and carbon dioxide mixtures compared to high concentrations of carbon dioxide for stunning rabbits
Contributor(s):: Llonch, P., Rodriguez, P., Velarde, A., Abreu de Lima, V., Dalmau, A.
Licensing poultry CO<sub>2</sub> gas-stunning systems with regard to animal welfare: investigations under practical conditions
Contributor(s):: Holleben, K. von, Wenzlawowicz, M. von, Eser, E.
Carbon dioxide for euthanasia: concerns regarding pain and distress, with special reference to mice and rats
Contributor(s):: Conlee, K. M., Stephens, M. L., Rowan, A. N., King, L. A.
Evaluating methods of gas euthanasia for laboratory mice
Contributor(s):: Makowska, I. J., Vickers, L., Mancell, J., Weary, D. M.
Laboratory mice are most commonly killed with carbon dioxide (CO2), a gas they may find aversive. The aim of this study was to use approach-avoidance testing to record mouse responses to CO2 and to four alternatives: argon, carbon monoxide (CO), and the inhalant anaesthetics halothane and...
Rat aversion to carbon monoxide
Contributor(s):: Makowska, I. J., Weary, D. M.
The most common method of killing laboratory rodents is exposure to carbon dioxide, but recent studies have shown that rodents find this gas aversive. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colourless and odourless gas that reduces oxygen supply to the tissues and leads to hypoxia. The aim of this study was...
Rat aversion to induction with inhalant anaesthetics
The most common method of euthanasia of laboratory rodents is exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2), but recent studies have shown that rodents find this gas aversive. Inhalant anaesthetics such as halothane and isoflurane are commonly used to induce unconsciousness in small animals and may be a...
Rats show aversion to argon-induced hypoxia
Contributor(s):: Makowska, I. J., Niel, L., Kirkden, R. D., Weary, D. M.
Laboratory rats and mice are commonly killed using carbon dioxide gas. However, recent studies have shown that rodents find this gas aversive. Argon is a tasteless and odourless gas that causes hypoxia by displacing air. The aim of the present study was to use approach-avoidance testing to...