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  1. Hippotherapy and features of horses used in therapyHippoterapi ve terapide kullanilan atlarin ozellikleri

    Contributor(s):: Koseman, A., Seker, I.

    The aim of this study is to highlight both the hippotherapy, which is used as a method of therapy for mentally and physically disabled individuals and features of horses used in therapy. Shortly, hippotherapy, which means "the therapy by means of a horse", has neuro-physiological mechanism....

  2. Assessment of aversion and unconsciousness during exposure to carbon dioxide at high concentration in lambs

    Contributor(s):: Rodriguez, P., Dalmau, A., Manteca, X., Litvan, H., Jensen, E. W., Velarde, A.

    The most widely used stunning method in sheep is electrical. However, in lambs, this method leads to rupture of the blood vessels, provoking ecchymoses. In pigs ( Sus scrofa), the use of CO 2-stunning systems has increased in popularity due to positive effects on meat quality and animal welfare...

  3. Combination therapy reduces self-injurious behavior in a chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes troglodytes ): a case report

    Contributor(s):: Bourgeois, S. R., Vazquez, M., Brasky, K.

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) remains a severe and intractable abnormal behavior for nonhuman primates in diverse settings and is a significant concern for veterinarians and behavioral scientists. To date, no single pharmacological, behavioral, social, or environmental intervention method has...

  4. Equine stereotypic behaviors: causation, occurrence, and prevention

    Contributor(s):: Sarrafchi, A., Blokhuis, H. J.

    There are strong suggestions that equine stereotypies are connected to poor welfare and a suboptimal management and/or stabling environment. Different forms of equine stereotypic behaviors have been described. Crib biting, weaving, and box walking are considered the most prevalent. Several...

  5. Avian vacuolar myelinopathy: a newly recognized fatal neurological disease of eagles, waterfowl and other birds

    Contributor(s):: John R. Fischer, Lynn A. Lewis, Tom Augspurger, Tonie E. Rocke

    Since 1994, wildlife biologists and wildlife health specialists have worked to determine the cause of avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM), a neurologic disease of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and other birds. The causes of morbidity and mortality in wildlife typically are determined...

  6. Pain and stress in crustaceans? (Special Issue: Animal suffering and welfare.)

    Contributor(s):: Elwood, R. W., Barr, S., Patterson, L.

    We consider evidence that crustaceans might experience pain and stress in ways that are analogous to those of vertebrates. Various criteria are applied that might indicate a potential for pain experience: (1) a suitable central nervous system and receptors, (2) avoidance learning, (3) protective...

  7. Chimeras: The ethics of creating human-animal interspecifics

    Contributor(s):: Constanze Huther

    In summer 2004, I had the pleasure of attending a seminar by Julian Savulescu and Nick Bostrom about "Human Enhancement, Artificial Beings, and the Future of Humanity" at the University of Oxford. Among other quite exotic topics, chimeras were the subject matter of one of our seminar meetings....

  8. Management and treatment options for human toxocariasis

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: C. V. Holland (editor), H. V. Smith (editor), Jean-Francois Magnaval, Larry Glickman

    Introduction:Human toxocariasis is a zoonosis caused by infective larvae of Toxocara canis (Beaver, 1956) or Toxocara cati (Nagakura et al., 1990). These ascarids are commonly found in the tissues (larvae) and intestinal tract (adult worms) of dogs and cats, respectively. Infection results from...

  9. Onset of sentience: the potential for suffering in fetal and newborn farm animals

    | Contributor(s):: Mellor, D. J., Diesch, T. J.

    Sentience and consciousness are prerequisites of suffering. Thus, animals must have sufficiently sophisticated neural mechanisms to receive sensory information and to transduce this information into sensations, and they must also be conscious to be able to perceive those sensations. Moreover,...

  10. Stereotypies, adrenal function and neurophysiological aspects of gestating sows

    | Contributor(s):: Borell, E. von, Hurnik, J. F.

  11. Assessment of unconsciousness during carbon dioxide stunning in pigs

    | Contributor(s):: Rodriguez, P., Dalmau, A., Ruiz-de-la-Torre, J. L., Manteca, X., Jensen, E. W., Rodriguez, B., Litvan, H., Velarde, A.

    The aim of this study was to assess unconsciousness in pigs during exposure to CO2 through changes in the middle latency auditory evoke potentials (MLAEP) of the central nervous system (CNS), blood parameters (pH, carbon dioxide partial pressure [pCO2], oxygen partial pressure [pO2], oxygen...

  12. Is sodium fluoroacetate (1080) a humane poison?

    | Contributor(s):: Sherley, M.

    Sodium fluoroacetate (1080) is widely used for the control of vertebrate pests in Australia. While the ecological impact of 1080 baiting on non-target species has been the subject of ongoing research, the animal welfare implications of this practice have received little attention. Literature...

  13. The somatic sensory system

    | Contributor(s):: Kamerling, S. G.

    The somatic sensory system provides information on bodily sensations. The status of an animal's internal and external environment is detected and interpreted by this system. Specialized receptors "transduce" the sensations of touch, pressure, temperature, and pain. Sensory impulses are...