Ethological vignette: Social stress as a formative experience
Contributor(s):: Huhman, Kim L.
Commentary on: 'Social stress as a formative experience
Contributor(s):: Wilce, James
The placebo effect in animals
Contributor(s):: McMillan, F. D.
Classical conditioning of milk ejection using a novel conditioned stimulus
Contributor(s):: Willis, G. L., Mein, G.
In order to determine whether a neutral, artificial stimulus could facilitate or inhibit milk ejection after it was transferred to the milking situation, a blue disc, 33 cm in diam. (conditioned stimulus, CS), was paired with either the presentation or removal of calves (unconditioned stimulus,...
Conditioning ewes and lambs to increase consumption of spotted knapweed
Contributor(s):: Whitney, T. R., Olson, B. E.
Spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam.) is an invasive plant that alters species composition and grazing value of rangelands in the northwestern United States. The spread of invasive plants may be reduced by using livestock as a biological control. We determined if mature ewes and their lambs...
Taste-aversion conditioning of house mice ( Mus domesticus ) using the non-lethal repellent, cinnamamide
Contributor(s):: Watkins, R. W., Gurney, J. E., Cowan, D. P.
The potential of cinnamamide, a non-lethal repellent, to induce a conditioned taste aversion in house mice was investigated. Mice were presented with saccharin solution, then assigned to 1 of 4 groups, each of 6 individuals, receiving lithium chloride, cinnamamide or blank carrier by oral...
A note on the effect of a palatable food reward on operant conditioning in horses
Contributor(s):: Ninomiya, S., Mitsumasu, T., Aoyama, M., Kusunose, R.
We investigated the effect of two food types (hay or pellet) on operant conditioning of 12 horses. One group was trained using pelleted concentrate (Group P) and the second (Group H) was trained using cut timothy hay as rewards. We investigated the effect of the food type on the time needed to...
A preliminary study into the effectiveness of stroboscopic light as an aversive stimulus for fish
Contributor(s):: Mesquita, F. de O., Godinho, H. P., Azevedo, P. G. de, Young, R. J.
To reduce fish mortality in nature it is often necessary to expel individuals from areas modified by humans (e.g., dams) where they could be injured or killed. We tested the effectiveness of stroboscopic light as an aversive stimulus for zebrafish (Danio rerio) in captivity. We used six groups of...
Concurrent schedules of reinforcement as a method to quantify the relative attractiveness of two rooting materials
Contributor(s):: Pedersen, L. J., Jensen, M. B.
Operant conditioning techniques were applied to investigate pigs' preference for peat and long straw using concurrent schedules of reinforcement. Ten pigs worked, by pressing one of two panels, for access to two different materials in daily 50 min test sessions. Workloads of the reference...
Physiologic responses during an exhaustive driving test in donkeys: effect of conditioning
Contributor(s):: Matthews, N. S., Taylor, T. S., Potter, G. D.
Improvement in performance following a 1-month conditioning period was tested in five donkeys. The two females and three geldings weighed 235 kg (SD, 54) and were 4 to 8 years old. The donkeys had previously been trained to pull a cart and were accustomed to wearing heart rate monitors. Following...
Social hierarchy affects the adaption of pregnant sows to a call feeding learning paradigm
Contributor(s):: Manteuffel, G., Mannewitz, A., Manteuffel, C., Tuchscherer, A., Schrader, L.
The aim of the study was to test whether adult sows are able to learn an individual acoustic signal for call-feeding in groups supplied with an electronic feeder. Further, we investigated whether and how the social rank of sows affects learning success. Thirty-six sows were examined in 6...
A note on averting goats to a toxic but palatable plant, Leucaena leucocephala
Contributor(s):: Gorniak, S. L., Pfister, J. A., Lanzonia, E. C., Raspantini, E. R.
Conditioned taste aversions are a useful tool to reduce livestock consumption of toxic plants. The forage legume Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) is both toxic and palatable. The objective of this study was to determine if goats could be aversively conditioned to avoid leucaena. Adult and...
Diversity of diet influences the persistence of conditioned taste aversion in rats
Contributor(s):: Gentle, M., Massei, G., Quy, R.
Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) occurs when an animal associates the taste of a food with illness, and subsequently avoids consuming that food. CTA can be a significant obstacle to the cost-effectiveness of poison-baiting campaigns when baits contain toxicants that cause symptoms to develop...
Measuring animal preferences: shape of double demand curves and the effect of procedure used for varying workloads on their cross-point
Contributor(s):: Holm, L., Ritz, C., Ladewig, J.
Animals' preferences can be measured using cross-points between double demand curves. Animals are required to press concurrently at two levers to obtain two resources. Previously, workload was either kept constant on one lever and alternated on the other (one alternating lever procedure), or...
Music during play-time: using context conditioning as a tool to improve welfare in piglets
Contributor(s):: Jonge, F. H. de, Boleij, H., Baars, A. M., Dudink, S., Spruijt, B. M.
In this experiment, we investigated whether music can facilitate play behaviour in piglets after weaning, when that music had been presented preweaning as a contextual cue associated with access to a playroom. One group of piglets was given daily access to a playroom preweaning while music was...
The influence of barley food rewards on sheep movement through a handling system
Contributor(s):: Hutson, G. D.
The use of barley feed rewards to improve sheep handling was evaluated in 2 experiments. In experiment 1, 6 groups of sheep were trained to run through a race system and into a sheep-handling machine. Three groups were rewarded and 3 were not. After 10 days of training over 1 month, rewarded and...
A note on social dominance and learning ability in the domestic chicken ( Gallus gallus )
Contributor(s):: Croney, C. C., Prince-Kelly, N., Meller, C. L.
Relatively little is known about the relationship between social behavior and specific cognitive abilities of the chicken. It is uncertain whether dominant birds have a cognitive advantage over subordinate birds that might facilitate their superior position in the social hierarchy. Likewise, it...
Addressing nonhuman primate behavioral problems through the application of operant conditioning: is the human treatment approach a useful model? (Special Issue: Conservation, enrichment and animal behavior.)
Contributor(s):: Bloomsmith, M. A., Marr, M. J., Maple, T. L.
Training by the systematic application of operant conditioning has been widely applied in the care, management, exhibition, and study of nonhuman primates and many other species, but is less often used to control problematic animal behavior such as stereotyped behavior or self-injurious behavior....
Learned food aversion with and without an odour cue for protecting untreated baits from wild mammal foraging. (Special Issue: Conservation, enrichment and animal behavior.)
Contributor(s):: Baker, S. E., Johnson, P. J., Slater, D., Watkins, R. W., Macdonald, D. W.
Lethal methods of controlling wildlife foraging damage may present difficulties regarding conservation, ethics, welfare, and efficacy, providing an imperative to develop non-lethal alternatives. Learned food aversions offer a benign, targeted alternative to culling. However, food aversions are...