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  1. Class: an essential aspect of watershed planning

    Contributor(s):: Adams, J.

    A study of a watershed planning process in the Cache River Watershed in southern Illinois (USA) revealed that class divisions, based on property ownership, underlay key conflicts over land use and decision-making relevant to resource use. A class analysis of the region indicates that the planning...

  2. Coexistence of plants and coexistence of farmers: is an individual choice possible?

    Contributor(s):: Binimelis, R.

    The introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in Europe has been characterized by controversy. In 2002, the European Union introduced the concept of "coexistence" as a compromise solution that, through the establishment of science-based technical measures, should allow the market to...

  3. Environmental risks of pesticides versus genetic engineering for agricultural pest control

    Contributor(s):: Paoletti, M. G., Pimentel, D.

    This paper discusses the environmental risks of pesticides as compared to the risks associated with the application of genetic engineering and biotechnology in agricultural pest, plant pathogen and weed control. It is suggested that in terms of environmental and public health impacts, pesticides...

  4. Maize: the Native North American's legacy of cultural diversity and biodiversity

    Contributor(s):: Wertz, S. K.

    Recent research has focused on establishing the values of preserving biodiversity both in agriculture and in less managed ecosystems, and in showing the importance of the role of cultural diversity in preserving biodiversity in food production systems. A study of the philosophy embedded in...

  5. Science and the consequences of mistruct: lessons from recent GM controversies. (Special issue: Ethics as a dimension of agrifood policy: selected papers from the 4th Congress of the European Society for Agricultural and Food Ethics)

    Contributor(s):: Scott, D.

    In 2001, it was announced that transgenic DNA had introgressed into traditional strains of maize in Mexico. A controversy 'erupted and raged' throughout 2001 and 2002. This episode represents an acute breakdown in scientific discourse. The following inquiry looks into the causes of this...

  6. Understanding the scope of farmer perceptions of risk: considering farmer opinions on the use of genetically modified (GM) crops as a stakeholder voice in policy

    Contributor(s):: Guehlstorf, N. P.

    This study explores the relationship of farmer attitudes and GM agriculture. A survey was conducted on 200 farmer adopters and non-adopters of GM crops within the counties of Madison, Macoupin, Jersey and Feyette in Illinois, USA on the perception of risk in relation to GM food production and...

  7. Effects of economic downturns on mortality of wild African elephants

    Contributor(s):: Wittemyer, G.

    Declines in economic activity and associated changes in human livelihood strategies can increase threats of species overexploitation. This is exemplified by the effects of economic crises, which often drive intensification of subsistence poaching and greater reliance on natural resources. Whereas...

  8. Effects of feed- and water-based enrichment on activity and cannibalism in Muscovy ducklings

    Contributor(s):: Riber, A. B., Mench, J. A.

    Cannibalism is a major problem for commercial production of Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata). Surprisingly little is known about the ontogeny of cannibalism in ducks or how to reduce/prevent the problem in a welfare-friendly way. The preventative method typically used by the industry is...

  9. Overcoming food neophobia in domestic ruminants through addition of a familiar flavor and repeated exposure to novel foods

    Contributor(s):: Launchbaugh, K. L., Provenza, F. D., Werkmeister, M. J.

    Food neophobia, observed as a decreased intake of novel foods, can cause significant livestock production losses. In the transition from rangeland to feedlot, livestock are usually offered novel diets that they sample cautiously, gradually increasing intake. This familiarization period can slow...

  10. Pregnancy in goats does not influence intake of novel or familiar foods with or without toxins

    Contributor(s):: Knubel, B. F. R., Panter, K. E., Provenza, F. D.

    Some hypothesize that mammals decrease intake of foods that contain toxins during pregnancy to protect the fetus. We conducted a longitudinal study of feeding behavior to determine if pregnancy-related changes in food selection and intake occurred in goats. Goats eat modest amounts of toxic...

  11. Threshold concentrations of an anthraquinone-based repellent for Canada geese, red-winged blackbirds, and ring-necked pheasants

    Contributor(s):: Werner, S. J., Carlson, J. C., Tupper, S. K., Santer, M. M., Linz, G. M.

    Wildlife repellents provide a non-lethal alternative for managing the monetary impacts of agricultural depredation. For the purpose of developing of an effective avian repellent, we established repellency thresholds of an anthraquinone-based repellent for Canada geese (Branta canadensis),...

  12. Artificial illumination reduces bait-take by small rainforest mammals

    Contributor(s):: Bengsen, A. J., Leung, L. K. P., Lapidge, S. J., Gordon, I. J.

    Small mammals often moderate their foraging behaviour in response to cues indicating a high local predation risk. We assessed the ability of cues associated with a high predation risk to reduce the consumption of bait by non-target small mammal species in a tropical rainforest, without inhibiting...

  13. Conditioned aversion in sheep induced by Baccharis coridifolia

    Contributor(s):: Almeida, M. B. de, Schild, A. L., Brasil, N. D. A., Quevedo, P. de S., Fiss, L., Pfister, J. A., Riet-Correa, F.

    In Southern Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, and Paraguay, the invasive weed Baccharis coridifolia often poisons naive animals. Farmers prevent B. coridifolia poisoning using several unconventional methods to reduce ingestion: (1) burning plant material under an animals' nose, and having the animal...

  14. Feed preference by Baladi goats

    Contributor(s):: Abdel-Moneim, A. Y., Abd-Alla, M. S.

    Eight adult (24-48 months) and 8 juvenile (6-12 months) Baladi does were maintained on a diet of Egyptian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum) or darawa (Zea mays) supplemented with concentrates. After an overnight starve, goats were given the choice of 2 green forages (clover, darawa and sorghum...

  15. Economics and energetics of organic and conventional farming

    Contributor(s):: Pimentel, D.

    Using data from published information on the production of US maize and potatoes employing different technologies and energy inputs, it is shown that the organic production of grains, such as maize, requires less fossil energy than conventional crop production. For some crops, the organic...

  16. Ethanol fuels: energy security, economics and the environment

    Contributor(s):: Pimentel, D.

    Problems of fuel ethanol production have been the subject of numerous reports, including this analysis. The conclusions are that ethanol: does not improve US energy security; is uneconomical; is not a renewable energy source; and increases environmental degradation. Ethanol production is wasteful...

  17. Use of space in a non-naturalistic environment by chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ) and lowland gorillas ( Gorilla gorilla gorilla )

    Contributor(s):: Ross, S. R., Lukas, K. E.

    Chimpanzees and gorillas are the two most common species of great ape in captive facilities in North America. This study examined patterns of space use by 14 gorillas and six chimpanzees housed in similar non-naturalistic environments at Lincoln Park Zoo in Chicago, IL. The location of each...

  18. Comparison of the behaviour of captive white-faced capuchin monkeys ( Cebus capucinus ) in the presence of four kinds of deep litter

    Contributor(s):: Ludes, E., Anderson, J. R.

    Captive white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) were placed in a large indoor room without or with deep litter made of wood chips, dried ground maize cob, wood wool or garden peat. Feed was scattered on the bare floor or on the litter and the behaviour of the monkeys was observed. When...

  19. Evaluation of different observational sampling regimes for use in zoological parks

    | Contributor(s):: Margulis, S. W., Westhus, E. J.

    Observational sampling methods provide clearly-defined guidelines for collection and analysis of behavioral data. In some situations, use of formal sampling regimes may be impractical or impossible. A case in point is data collection conducted by animal care staff at zoological parks and aquaria....

  20. Acceptance of fat and lecithin containing diets by horses

    | Contributor(s):: Holland, J. L., Kronfeld, D. S., Rich, G. A., Kline, K. A., Fontenot, J. P., Meacham, T. N., Harris, P. A.

    The acceptability of various fat sources was compared in horses using maize oil as a standard. In 3 trials, 10 fat-containing concentrates were fed to horses in cafeteria-style preference trials and ranked from highest to lowest as follows: maize oil, blend no. 3, hydrolysed tallow, peanut oil,...