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  1. Individual and environmental factors associated with stereotypic behavior and fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels in zoo housed polar bears

    Contributor(s):: Shepherdson, David, Lewis, Karen D., Carlstead, Kathy, Bauman, Joan, Perrin, Nancy

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are known to exhibit repetitive pacing behaviors, usually described as stereotypic, in zoo environments. However, little quantitative information exists about the prevalence of pacing in the zoo population. Similarly, large, multi-institutional studies conducted to...

  2. Variation in stress reactivity affects cage-induced stereotypies in female CD-1 (ICR) mice

    Contributor(s):: Engel, Anna Katarina J., Gross, Alexandra N., Richter, S. Helene, Rommen, Jonas, Touma, Chadi, Würbel, Hanno

    Stereotypies in captive animals typically occur under conditions that are stressful for the animals, and there is some anecdotal evidence that stress levels during early stereotypy development predict later stereotypy levels. Based on this and on the involvement of stress in the behavioural...

  3. The impact of bedding volumes on laboratory mice

    Contributor(s):: Freymann, Jennifer, Tsai, Ping-Ping, Stelzer, Helge, Hackbarth, Hansjoachim

    Environmental refinement is considered to be an improvement in housing conditions for laboratory animals. Previous preference tests showed that female BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice prefer deeper bedding in comparison to shallow bedding (Freymann et al., 2015). In order to give a comprehensive insight...

  4. Impact of tank background on the welfare of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis (Daudin)

    Contributor(s):: Holmes, Andrew M., Emmans, Christopher J., Jones, Niall, Coleman, Robert, Smith, Tessa E., Hosie, Charlotte A.

    The captive environment of a laboratory animal can profoundly influence its welfare and the scientific validity of research produced. The African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) is a common model organism, however current husbandry guidelines lack supporting quantitative evidence. The visual...

  5. Captive domesticated zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) have increased plasma corticosterone concentrations in the absence of bathing water

    Contributor(s):: Krause, E. Tobias, Ruploh, Tim

    Keeping animals in captivity should always favour conditions that aim to improve their welfare with respect to species-specific requirements. For laboratory animals, the majority of welfare issues have been explored in rodents thus far, whereas the effect of housing conditions on the well-being...

  6. Environmentally enriching American mink (Neovison vison) increases lymphoid organ weight and skeletal symmetry, and reveals differences between two sub-types of stereotypic behaviour

    Contributor(s):: Díez-León, María, Bursian, Steve, Galicia, David, Napolitano, Angelo, Palme, Rupert, Mason, Georgia

    Enrichment studies for wild carnivores (e.g., in zoos) are often short-term, use enrichments of unknown motivational significance, and focus on glucocorticoids and stereotypic behaviour (SB), ignoring other stress-relevant variables. Our study assessed the broad behavioural and physiological...

  7. Effect of a partial cage dividing enrichment on aggression-associated parameters in group-housed male C57BL/6NCrl mice

    Contributor(s):: Mertens, Sinja, Gass, Peter, Palme, Rupert, Hiebl, Bernhard, Chourbaji, Sabine

    Group-housing is highly important for social animals. Group-housing of male mice in captivity though often leads to aggression with partially disastrous consequences for the animals as well as for the quality of experimental data. In this study we investigated the effect of a novel...

  8. How environmental enrichment affects behavioral and glucocorticoid responses in captive blue-and-yellow macaws (Ara ararauna)

    Contributor(s):: de Almeida, Ana Claudia, Palme, Rupert, Moreira, Nei

    Captive animals are susceptible to chronic stress due to restricted space, lack of hiding places, presence of visitors, or the lack of resources that promote physical and mental stimuli. In birds, chronic stress can promote stereotypes, self-mutilation, feather picking, chewing on cage bars and...

  9. Environmentally enriching American mink ( Neovison vison) increases lymphoid organ weight and skeletal symmetry, and reveals differences between two sub-types of stereotypic behaviour

    Contributor(s):: Diez-Leon, M., Bursian, S., Galicia, D., Napolitano, A., Palme, R., Mason, G.

    Enrichment studies for wild carnivores (e.g., in zoos) are often short-term, use enrichments of unknown motivational significance, and focus on glucocorticoids and stereotypic behaviour (SB), ignoring other stress-relevant variables. Our study assessed the broad behavioural and physiological...

  10. A case study: fecal corticosteroid and behavior as indicators of welfare during relocation of an Asian elephant

    Contributor(s):: Laws, N., Ganswindt, A., Heistermann, M., Harris, M., Harris, S., Sherwin, C.

    This study was a preliminary investigation of an enzyme immunoassay for measuring fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in a male Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) by investigating changes in behavior and cortisol metabolite excretion associated with a putative stressful event. The study collected...

  11. Captive coyotes compared to their counterparts in the wild: does environmental enrichment help?

    Contributor(s):: Shivik, J. A., Palmer, G. L., Gese, E. M., Osthaus, B.

    This article attempts to determine the effects of environment (captive or wild) and a simple form of environmental enrichment on the behavior and physiology of a nonhuman animal. Specifically, analyses first compared behavioral budgets and stereotypic behavior of captive coyotes (Canis latrans)...

  12. Effect of breed, cage type, and reproductive phase on fecal corticosterone levels in doe rabbits

    Contributor(s):: Prola, L., Cornale, P., Renna, M., Macchi, E., Perona, G., Mimosi, A.

    Fecal corticosterone concentration (FCC) is increasingly being used as a noninvasive indicator of stress in assessment of nonhuman animal welfare. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of breed, cage type, reproductive phase, and their interactions on FCC levels in doe rabbits. A total of...

  13. The effects of environmental control on cognition in rats ( Rattus norvegicus )

    Contributor(s):: Alliger, A. A., Moller, P.

    The aim of this study was to allow nonhuman animals to control their environment using operant conditioning procedures and to assess the effect of control on cognitive tasks. The study tested 4 predictions: (a) rats (Rattus norvegicus) will control a light stimulus; (b) animals will exhibit...

  14. There's a rat in my room! Now what? Mice show no chronic physiological response to the presence of rats

    Contributor(s):: Meijer, M. K., Loo, P. L. P. van, Baumans, V.

    In general, guidelines on housing and care of animals in the laboratory state that rats and mice should not be housed in the same room. Mice may perceive rats as predators. Although one theory says this can cause stress, there is little scientific evidence to support this theory. In the wild,...

  15. Urinary corticosterone levels in mice in response to intraperitoneal injections with saline

    Contributor(s):: Meijer, M. K., Lemmens, A. G., Zutphen, B. F. M. van, Baumans, V.

    The concept of refinement is an important issue in the field of laboratory animal science. Refinement-based research aims to improve animal welfare, to increase the reliability of experimental outcome, and to diminish variation. In search of refinement of experimental techniques, this study...

  16. Close human presence reduces avoidance behaviour in commercial caged laying hens to an approaching human

    Contributor(s):: Edwards, L. E., Coleman, G. J., Hemsworth, P. H.

    The quality of human contact that hens are exposed to will determine the degree of fear of humans that they experience. This has consequences for the welfare of commercial laying hens, as hens that are afraid of humans will be regularly exposed to a fear-provoking stressor. Hens can be habituated...

  17. Hormonal stress response of laboratory mice to conventional and minimally invasive bleeding techniques

    Contributor(s):: Voigt, C. C., Klockner, P., Touma, C., Neuschl, C., Brockmann, G., Goritz, F., Palme, R., Thomsen, R.

  18. Environmental enrichment exerts anxiolytic effects in the Indian field mouse (Mus booduga)

    Contributor(s):: Varman, D. R., Ganapathy, Marimuthu, Rajan, K. E.

  19. Is the mechanisation of catching broilers a welfare improvement?

    Contributor(s):: Delezie, E., Lips, D., Lips, R., Decuypere, E.

  20. Monitoring stress hormone metabolites as a useful, non-invasive tool for welfare assessment in farm animals

    Contributor(s):: Palme, R.