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Relationships between feeding behaviour, activity, dominance and feed efficiency in finishing beef steers
Contributor(s):: Haskell, Marie J., Rooke, John A., Roehe, Rainer, Turner, Simon P., Hyslop, James J., Waterhouse, Anthony, Duthie, Carol-Anne
To increase the profitability and sustainability of beef production systems, the use of animals with high feed efficiency is preferred. Efficient animals eat less than their peers for the same or better growth. This efficiency can be measured using feed conversion ratios (FCR) and residual feed...
Relationship between the stockperson's attitudes and dairy productivity in Japan
Contributor(s):: Packer, R. M., Ortega, M., Anderson, T. J., Fukasawa, M., Kawahata, M., Higashiyama, Y., Komatsu, T.
Current agricultural practices threaten future global food production
Contributor(s):: Liu, YongBo, Pan, XuBin, Li, JunSheng
In future decades, food demand for an increased population with elevated standards of living poses a huge challenge, particularly in the sense of the environmental impacts of agricultural systems. We have analyzed agricultural data from the past 50 years, and found that the current agricultural...
Effects of genetic selection for residual feed intake on behavioral reactivity of castrated male pigs to novel stimuli tests
Contributor(s):: Colpoys, J. D., Abell, C. E., Young, J. M., Keating, A. F., Gabler, N. K., Millman, S. T., Siegford, J. M., Johnson, A. K.
Increasing feed efficiency in swine is important for increasing sustainable food production and profitability for producers; therefore, this is often selected for at breeding. Residual feed intake (RFI) can be used for the genetic selection of pigs for feed efficiency. In our selection project,...
Renewable resources and the idea of nature - what has biotechnology got to do with it?
Contributor(s):: Karafyllis, N. C.
The notion that the idea of nature is not quite the unbiased rule to design sustainable futures is obvious. But, nevertheless, questions about nature, how it functions and what it might aim at, is leading the controversial debates about both sustainability and biotechnology. These two research...
A dual-perspective model of agroecosystem health: system functions and system goals
Contributor(s):: Haworth, L., Brunk, C., Jennex, D., Arai, S.
The idea of agroecosystem health is understood from two perspectives: a system-functions perspective and system-goals perspective. The system functions are: integrity, resilience and efficiency and are essential to the flourishing of a biotic community. The system goals are social, natural and...
Biofuels: efficiency, ethics, and limits to human appropriation of ecosystem services
Contributor(s):: Gomiero, T., Paoletti, M. G., Pimentel, D.
Biofuels have lately been indicated as a promising source of cheap and sustainable energy. In this paper we argue that some important ethical and environmental issues have also to be addressed: (1) the conflict between biofuels production and global food security, particularly in developing...
Environmental and social implications of waste in US agriculture and food sectors
Contributor(s):: Pimentel, D.
A preliminary survey of the environmental and social costs in the US agricultural and food sectors indicates an estimated waste of at least $150 000 million per year of the total $700 000 million food/fibre GNP. Much of the wastes and many of the negative environmental and social impacts...
Incentive problems in Canada's land markets: emphasis on Ontario
Contributor(s):: Gilmour, B., Huffman, R., Terauds, A., Jefferson, C.
The specific issue addressed is urban encroachment on Ontario's agricultural lands, and the problems it poses for both analysis and the conservation of the land resource. The aim is: (1) to identify where and why traditional analytical and regulatory approaches fail to resolve land use conflicts,...
Nitrogen turnover on organic and conventional mixed farms
Contributor(s):: Halberg, N., Kristensen, E. S., Kristensen, I. S.
Separate assessment of crop fertilization or feeding practices inadequately describes nitrogen (N) loss from mixed dairy farms because of: (1) interaction between animal and crop production and between the production system and the manager; and (2) uncertainties of herd N production and crop N...
The community vs. the market and the state: forest use in Uttarakhand in the Indian Himalayas
Contributor(s):: Arun, Agrawal
It has generally been presumed that local populations, if they act in their self-interest, seldom conserve or protect natural resources without external intervention or privatization. Using the example of forest management by villagers in the Indian Himalayas, this paper argues that rural...
Mating competency of rams and flock fertility
Contributor(s):: Winfield, C. G., Cahill, L. P.
The mating performance of 4 Corriedale rams with low mating competency (ratio of mounts to services approx. 12:1) were compared with those of 4 rams with high mating competency (ratio approx. 2:1) when they were mated for 8 days in single-sire flocks at a ram:ewe ratio of 1:90. The 2 groups of...
The sexual motivation of boars housed adjacent to ovariectomised gilts did not affect the efficiency of detecting hormonally induced oestrus using the back pressure test
Contributor(s):: Turner, A. I., Hemsworth, P. H., Tilbrook, A. J.
This study tested the hypothesis that the efficiency of detecting oestrus in gilts using the back pressure test will be lower when gilts are housed adjacent to a boar of high sexual motivation than when they are housed adjacent to a boar of low sexual motivation. The experiment was a 2 x 2 Latin...
The effects of two oestrus detection procedures and intense boar stimulation near the time of oestrus on mating efficiency of the female pig
Contributor(s):: Hemsworth, P. H., Cronin, G. M., Hansen, C., Winfield, C. G.
In the 1st of 2 experiments, 32 crossbred gilts, aged 12-14 months and which had exhibited >=6 regular oestrous cycles, were checked each morning for oestrus in the corridor adjacent to boar pens (group 1) or in their own pens, which were separated from the boars pens by a 1.0-m wide corridor...
Vitamin A metabolism in recessive white canaries
Contributor(s):: Wolf, P., Bartels, T., Sallmann, H. P., Heisler, K., Kamphues, J.
In recent years, a possible defect in vitamin A metabolism in recessive white canaries (Serinus canaria) has been repeatedly discussed. It has widely been accepted that a reduced absorption of carotenoids from the small intestine results in an insufficient synthesis of vitamin A. Moreover, the...