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  1. Circadian Rhythm of Salivary Immunoglobulin A and Associations with Cortisol as A Stress Biomarker in Captive Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus)

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Tithipong Plangsangmas, Janine L. Brown, Chatchote Thitaram, Ayona Silva-Fletcher, Katie L. Edwards, Veerasak Punyapornwithaya, Patcharapa Towiboon, Chaleamchat Somgird

    Salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA) has been proposed as a potential indicator of welfare for various species, including Asian elephants, and may be related to adrenal cortisol responses. This study aimed to distinguish circadian rhythm effects on sIgA in male and female Asian elephants and...

  2. Evaluating the Reliability of Non-Specialist Observers in the Behavioural Assessment of Semi-Captive Asian Elephant Welfare

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Jonathan L. Webb, Jennie A. H. Crawley, Martin W. Seltmann, Océane Liehrmann, Nicola Hemmings, U Kyaw Nyein, Htoo Htoo Aung, Win Htut, Virpi Lummaa, Mirkka Lahdenperä

    Recognising stress is an important component in maintaining the welfare of captive animal populations, and behavioural observation provides a rapid and non-invasive method to do this. Despite substantial testing in zoo elephants, there has been relatively little interest in the application of...

  3. Elephants in Nepal: Correlating disease, tourism, and welfare

    | Contributor(s):: Szydlowski, Michelle

    Asian elephants and humans have long shared their lives, but recent changes in human perspectives on animal use have created ripples through the small country of Nepal. Captive elephants are caught in the crossfire between local communities, elephant owners, mahouts, and NGOs in debates over...

  4. Behavioral characterization of musth in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus): Defining progressive stages of male sexual behavior in in-situ and ex-situ populations

    | Contributor(s):: LaDue, Chase A., Vandercone, Rajnish P. G., Kiso, Wendy K., Freeman, Elizabeth W.

    Complementary studies of wild and zoo-housed animals offer insight into behavioral variation across a range of conditions including the context under which various behaviors evolved in natural settings. This information can be used to improve the sustainability of in-situ and ex-situ populations...

  5. The Behavioral Effects of Feeding Enrichment on a Zoo-Housed Herd of African Elephants (Loxodonta africana)

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Caroline Marie Driscoll

    A comprehensive study on the behavioral effects of feeding enrichment was conducted on six African elephants housed at the North Carolina Zoological Park in Asheboro, NC. The herd is comprised of are two adult males, three adult females, and one subadult female. The study was conducted over a...

  6. Barriers to Sustainable Hunting-Based Conservation of Elephants in Zimbabwe

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Jessica Cusworth

    The international demand for ivory has devastated African elephant populations. In 2015, more elephants were poached for ivory than were born. Many countries have sought to decrease poaching pressures through ivory trade bans. However, Zimbabwe, home to the second largest African elephant...

  7. A Case Study: Observations of Behaviors & Vocalizations in a Captive Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) During Quarantine

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Alexandra Dilley

    Bozie, an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), was relocated from the Baton Rouge Zoo to Smithsonian’s National Zoo. During a requisite 29-day quarantine period, I recorded Bozie’s stress-related behaviors and the vocalizations she produced when she was alone and with her keepers in...

  8. Contagious Yawning in African Elephants (Loxodonta africana): Responses to Other Elephants and Familiar Humans

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Zoë T. Rossman, Clare Padfield, Debbie Young, Benjamin L. Hart, Lynette A. Hart

    While spontaneous yawning is common across all vertebrate classes, contagious yawning is less common and has been observed only in a few species of social animals. Interspecific contagious yawning in response to yawning by humans has been observed only by chimpanzees and dogs. After...

  9. A survey of stereotypic behaviors in tourist camp elephants in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    | Contributor(s):: Fuktong, Sasitorn, Yuttasaen, Prapatsorn, Punyapornwithaya, Veerasak, Brown, Janine L., Thitaram, Chatchote, Luevitoonvechakij, Nicharee, Bansiddhi, Pakkanut

  10. Animals in Ancient Greek Warfare: A Study of the Elephant, Camel, and Dog

    | Contributor(s):: Rice, Jenna Rae

  11. Social Interactions in Zoo-Housed Elephants: Factors Affecting Social Relationships

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Ellen Williams, Anne Carter, Carol Hall, Samantha Bremner-Harrison

    Elephants have complex social systems that are predominantly driven by ecological factors in situ. Within zoos, elephants are held in relatively static social groups and the factors observed driving social relationships in the wild are largely absent. Little research has investigated the effect...

  12. Ecophysiology to understand elephants' crop raiding behavior.

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Steve Ngama, C. Vermeulen, J. Bindelle

    Conservation science has emerged to stem the current loss of biodiversity. To be efficient in this goal it needs integrative disciplines like ecophysiology, a biological field that studies the adaptation of an organism's physiology to environmental conditions. Surprisingly few...

  13. Rogue elephants in the news: A cultural-discursive study

    | Contributor(s):: Granden, Michelle

  14. Scientific and Ethical Issues in Exporting Welfare Findings to Different Animal Subpopulations: The Case of Semi-Captive Elephants Involved in Animal-Visitor Interactions (AVI) in South Africa

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Barbara de Mori, Elena Stagni, Linda Ferrante, Gregory Vogt, Keith A. Ramsay, Simona Normando

    Elephants are charismatic, cognitively highly-developed animals, whose management conditions can vary along a “wild–captive continuum.” Several protocols have been proposed for the assessment of zoo elephants’ welfare. It is important to investigate the possible...

  15. Public Feeding Interactions as Enrichment for Three Zoo-Housed Elephants

    | Contributor(s):: Fernandez, Eduardo J., Upchurch, Bruce, Hawkes, Nancy C.

  16. Your happiness or mine: Influence of affective states and level of contact on public perceptions of elephant tourism

    | Contributor(s):: Weston, M. E., Mills, K. E., von Keyserlingk, M. A. G.

  17. Theory of medical scoring systems and a practical method to evaluate Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) foot health in European zoos

    | Contributor(s):: Ertl, N., Wendler, P., Sos, E., Flugger, M., Schneeweis, F., Schiffmann, C., Hatt, J. M., Clauss, M.

  18. Using technology to monitor and improve zoo animal welfare

    | Contributor(s):: Whitham, J. C., Miller, L. J.

  19. Incorporating stakeholder perspectives into the assessment and provision of captive elephant welfare

    | Contributor(s):: Chadwick, C. L., Williams, E., Asher, L., Yon, L.

  20. Examination of enrichment using space and food for African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park

    | Contributor(s):: Hacker, C. E., Miller, L. J., Schulte, B. A.