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  1. Can stress and anxiety be assessed in African elephants (Loxodonta africana) using self-directed behaviour?

    Contributor(s):: Manning, Primrose, Hauff, Lindsey, Padfield, Clare, Olivier, Lisa, Ganswindt, Andre, Young, Debbie

  2. Should we be keeping elephants in captivity?

    Contributor(s):: Taylor, N.

  3. Barriers to Sustainable Hunting-Based Conservation of Elephants in Zimbabwe

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Jessica H. Cusworth

    The international demand for ivory has devastated African elephant populations. In 2015, more elephants were poached for ivory than were born. Many countries have sought to decrease poaching pressures through ivory trade bans. However, Zimbabwe, home to the second largest African elephant...

  4. The elephant (head) in the room: A critical look at trophy hunting

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Chelsea Batavia, Michael Paul Nelson, Chris T. Darimont, Paul C. Paquet, William J. Ripple, Arian D. Wallach

    Trophy hunting has occupied a prominent position in recent scholarly literature and popular media. In the scientific conservation literature, researchers are generally supportive of or sympathetic to its usage as a source of monetary support for conservation. Although authors at times...

  5. Impact of wildlife on food crops and approaches to reducing human wildlife conflict in the protected landscapes of Eastern Nepal

    | Contributor(s):: Dahal, N. K., Harada, K., Adhikari, S., Sapkota, R. P., Kandel, S.

  6. Living with Giants: Human-Elephant Conflict and Poaching in Myanmar

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Christie Lynn Sampson

    To address both the impacts of poaching on the wildlife and human populations and create effective conservation policy, conservation efforts must engage communities and include their views as stakeholders in the development of the policy. The involvement of local people has been shown to...

  7. Assessing the Effects of a Cognition-Based Education Program on Attitudes of Villagers Toward Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) in Conflict-Prone Areas

    | Contributor(s):: Makecha, Radhika N., Phalke, Sagarika, Nakai, Yoshie

  8. Assessing the Psychological Priorities for Optimising Captive Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) Welfare

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Jake Stuart Veasey

    The welfare status of elephants under human care has been a contentious issue for two decades or more in numerous western countries. Much effort has gone into assessing the welfare of captive elephants at individual and population levels with little consensus having been achieved in relation to...

  9. The Effects of Environmental Education on Children's Knowledge of Elephant Conservation in Rural and Urban Thailand

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Tamara Aird

    Think Elephants International’s EE program educated students on issues surrounding elephant conservation. One open-ended response question from surveys was analyzed to determine whether there was a knowledge difference between locations. After participation, urban students referenced more...

  10. Circadian Rhythm of Salivary Immunoglobulin A and Associations with Cortisol as A Stress Biomarker in Captive Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus)

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Tithipong Plangsangmas, Janine L. Brown, Chatchote Thitaram, Ayona Silva-Fletcher, Katie L. Edwards, Veerasak Punyapornwithaya, Patcharapa Towiboon, Chaleamchat Somgird

    Salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA) has been proposed as a potential indicator of welfare for various species, including Asian elephants, and may be related to adrenal cortisol responses. This study aimed to distinguish circadian rhythm effects on sIgA in male and female Asian elephants and...

  11. Evaluating the Reliability of Non-Specialist Observers in the Behavioural Assessment of Semi-Captive Asian Elephant Welfare

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Jonathan L. Webb, Jennie A. H. Crawley, Martin W. Seltmann, Océane Liehrmann, Nicola Hemmings, U Kyaw Nyein, Htoo Htoo Aung, Win Htut, Virpi Lummaa, Mirkka Lahdenperä

    Recognising stress is an important component in maintaining the welfare of captive animal populations, and behavioural observation provides a rapid and non-invasive method to do this. Despite substantial testing in zoo elephants, there has been relatively little interest in the application of...

  12. Elephants in Nepal: Correlating disease, tourism, and welfare

    | Contributor(s):: Szydlowski, Michelle

    Asian elephants and humans have long shared their lives, but recent changes in human perspectives on animal use have created ripples through the small country of Nepal. Captive elephants are caught in the crossfire between local communities, elephant owners, mahouts, and NGOs in debates over...

  13. Behavioral characterization of musth in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus): Defining progressive stages of male sexual behavior in in-situ and ex-situ populations

    | Contributor(s):: LaDue, Chase A., Vandercone, Rajnish P. G., Kiso, Wendy K., Freeman, Elizabeth W.

    Complementary studies of wild and zoo-housed animals offer insight into behavioral variation across a range of conditions including the context under which various behaviors evolved in natural settings. This information can be used to improve the sustainability of in-situ and ex-situ populations...

  14. The Behavioral Effects of Feeding Enrichment on a Zoo-Housed Herd of African Elephants (Loxodonta africana)

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Caroline Marie Driscoll

    A comprehensive study on the behavioral effects of feeding enrichment was conducted on six African elephants housed at the North Carolina Zoological Park in Asheboro, NC. The herd is comprised of are two adult males, three adult females, and one subadult female. The study was conducted over a...

  15. Barriers to Sustainable Hunting-Based Conservation of Elephants in Zimbabwe

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Jessica Cusworth

    The international demand for ivory has devastated African elephant populations. In 2015, more elephants were poached for ivory than were born. Many countries have sought to decrease poaching pressures through ivory trade bans. However, Zimbabwe, home to the second largest African elephant...

  16. A Case Study: Observations of Behaviors & Vocalizations in a Captive Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) During Quarantine

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Alexandra Dilley

    Bozie, an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), was relocated from the Baton Rouge Zoo to Smithsonian’s National Zoo. During a requisite 29-day quarantine period, I recorded Bozie’s stress-related behaviors and the vocalizations she produced when she was alone and with her keepers in...

  17. Contagious Yawning in African Elephants (Loxodonta africana): Responses to Other Elephants and Familiar Humans

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Zoë T. Rossman, Clare Padfield, Debbie Young, Benjamin L. Hart, Lynette A. Hart

    While spontaneous yawning is common across all vertebrate classes, contagious yawning is less common and has been observed only in a few species of social animals. Interspecific contagious yawning in response to yawning by humans has been observed only by chimpanzees and dogs. After...

  18. A survey of stereotypic behaviors in tourist camp elephants in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    | Contributor(s):: Fuktong, Sasitorn, Yuttasaen, Prapatsorn, Punyapornwithaya, Veerasak, Brown, Janine L., Thitaram, Chatchote, Luevitoonvechakij, Nicharee, Bansiddhi, Pakkanut

    Stereotypies are abnormal behaviors found in a wide range of animals that have been used as indicators of poor welfare. Elephants used in tourism have been reported to perform stereotypic behavior, but the occurrence has not been systematically assessed. The aims of this study were to ascertain...

  19. Animals in Ancient Greek Warfare: A Study of the Elephant, Camel, and Dog

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Rice, Jenna Rae

    My dissertation asserts that the study of animals is integral to the thorough understanding of the ancient military landscape, and three animals in particular warrant particular attention: the elephant, camel, and dog. I place these animals into the broader context of ancient warfare through...

  20. Social Interactions in Zoo-Housed Elephants: Factors Affecting Social Relationships

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Ellen Williams, Anne Carter, Carol Hall, Samantha Bremner-Harrison

    Elephants have complex social systems that are predominantly driven by ecological factors in situ. Within zoos, elephants are held in relatively static social groups and the factors observed driving social relationships in the wild are largely absent. Little research has investigated the effect...