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  1. Where Are Zoos Going—or Are They Gone?

    Contributor(s):: Safina, Carl

    To some, zoos are prisons exploiting animals. In reality zoos range from bad to better. I make this distinction: A bad zoo makes animals work for it; a good zoo works for animals. Good zoos do effective conservation work and continually strive to improve exhibits, relevance to conservation, and...

  2. A Comparison of Walking Rates Between Wild and Zoo African Elephants

    Contributor(s):: Miller, Lance J., Chase, Michael J., Hacker, Charlotte E.

    With increased scrutiny surrounding the welfare of elephants in zoological institutions, it is important to have empirical evidence on their current welfare status. If elephants are not receiving adequate exercise, it could lead to obesity, which can lead to many issues including acyclicity and...

  3. Public Attitudes in India and Australia toward Elephants in Zoos

    Contributor(s):: Gurusamy, Vivek, Tribe, Andrew, Toukhsati, Samia, Phillips, Clive J. C.

    We surveyed the attitudes of people toward captive elephants in australia, where importation into zoos has been controversial recently, compared with India, where elephants are indigenous. Both australian (AR, n = 101) and Indian (IR, n = 101) respondents rated conservation as the most important...

  4. Personality assessment in African elephants (Loxodonta africana): Comparing the temporal stability of ethological coding versus trait rating

    Contributor(s):: Horback, Kristina M., Miller, Lance J., Kuczaj, Stan A.

    The consistency of personality assessment was addressed in this study of 12 zoological African elephants living at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park in Escondido, CA, USA during the 2010 and 2011 summer seasons. Using 480h of observational behavior data, three personality traits were determined based...

  5. Fatal Tuberculosis in a Free-Ranging African Elephant and One Health Implications of Human Pathogens in Wildlife

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Michele A. Miller, Peter Buss, Eduard O. Roos, Guy Hausler, Anzaan Dippenaar, Emily Mitchell, Louis van Schalkwyk, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, W. Ray Waters, Alina Sikar-Gang, Konstantin P. Lyashchenko, Sven D. C. Parsons, Robin Warren, Paul van Helden

    Tuberculosis (TB) in humans is a global public health concern and the discovery of animal cases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection and disease, especially in multi-host settings, also has significant implications for public health, veterinary disease control, and conservation...

  6. Good keeper-elephant relationships in North American zoos are mutually beneficial to welfare

    | Contributor(s):: Carlstead, Kathy, Paris, Stephen, Brown, Janine L.

    Relationships between animals and their human caretakers can have profound impacts on animal welfare in farms, laboratories and zoos, while human attitudes are important predictors of caretaker behavior towards livestock. In this study, we examined the impact of keeper attitudes about working...

  7. Why pace? The influence of social, housing, management, life history, and demographic characteristics on locomotor stereotypy in zoo elephants

    | Contributor(s):: Greco, Brian J., Meehan, Cheryl L., Heinsius, Jennifer L., Mench, Joy A.

    Stereotypic behaviors (SB) are common in zoo-housed elephants, and these behaviors can be performed at high rates. Elephants perform different SB forms (e.g., weaving, pacing), but no published studies have evaluated the factors contributing to the development or performance of these different...

  8. African elephants (Loxodonta africana) display remarkable olfactory acuity in human scent matching to sample performance

    | Contributor(s):: von Dürckheim, Katharina E. M., Hoffman, Louwrens C., Leslie, Alison, Hensman, Michael C., Hensman, Sean, Schultz, Kip, Lee, Stephen

    This paper presents data on the success rate of African elephants in human scent matching to sample performance. Working with equipment and protocols similar to those used in the training of forensic canine units in Europe, scent samples were collected on cotton squares from twenty-six humans of...

  9. Assessing the dyadic social relationships of female african (Loxodonta africana) and asian (Elephas maximus) zoo elephants using proximity, tactile contact, and keeper surveys

    | Contributor(s):: Bonaparte-Saller, Mary, Mench, Joy A.

    Understanding the affiliative social relationships, or bonds, between zoo elephants has implications for both their welfare and management, yet there is limited work assessing and describing these bonds. Consequently, there is a need for the development of a reliable assessment tool. We used...

  10. The Days and Nights of Zoo Elephants: Using Epidemiology to Better Understand Stereotypic Behavior of African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) and Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) in North American Zoos

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Brian J. Greco, Cheryl L. Meehan, Jen N. Hogan, Katherine A. Leighty, Jill Mellen, Georgia J. Mason, Joy A. Mench

    Stereotypic behavior is an important indicator of compromised welfare. Zoo elephants are documented to perform stereotypic behavior, but the factors that contribute to performance have not been systematically assessed. We collected behavioral data on 89 elephants (47 African [Loxodonta...

  11. Elephant-initiated interactions with humans: individual differences and specific preferences in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana)

    | Contributor(s):: Rossman, Z. T., C Padfield, D Young, LA Hart

    South Africa has seen a recent increase in the number of African elephants (Loxodonta africana) maintained in reserves and parks and managed in free contact, where they may spend a significant amount of time in close proximity to humans. This study investigates how individual elephants choose to...

  12. Reproductive Endocrinology and Musth Indicators in a Captive Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus)

    | Contributor(s):: Duer, C., Tomasi, T., Abramson, C. I.

  13. A Comparison of Zoo Animal Behavior in the Presence of Familiar and Unfamiliar People

    | Contributor(s):: Martin, R. A., Melfi, V.

  14. Reproductive endocrinology and musth indicators in a captive Asian elephant (Elephas maximus)

    | Contributor(s):: Duer, Connie, Tomasi, Tom, Abramson, Charles I.

  15. Detusking Fence-Breaker Elephants as an Approach in Human-Elephant Conflict Mitigation

    | Contributor(s):: Matthew Mutinda, Geoffrey Chenge, Francis Gakuya, Moses Otiende, Patrick Omondi, Samuel Kasiki, Ramon C. Soriguer, Samer Alasaad

    BackgroundHuman-elephant conflict (HEC) is a recurring problem that appears wherever the range of elephants and humans overlap. Different methods including the use of electric fences are used worldwide to mitigate this conflict. Nonetheless, elephants learn quickly that their tusks do not conduct...

  16. First reported case of fatal tuberculosis in a wild African elephant with past human-wildlife contact

    | Contributor(s):: Vincent Obanda, J. Poghon, M. Yongo, I. Mulei, M. Ngotho, K. Waititu, J. Makumi, F. Gakuya, P. Omondi, R.C. Soriguer, S. Alasaad

    Tuberculosis is emerging/re-emerging in captive elephant populations, where it causes morbidity and deaths, although no case of TB in wild African elephants has been reported. In this paper we report the first case of fatal TB in an African elephant in the wild. The infection with Mycobacterium...

  17. Prevalence of stereotypies and its possible causes among captive Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus) in Tamil Nadu, India

    | Contributor(s):: Vanitha, Varadharajan, Thiyagesan, Krishnamoorthy, Baskaran, Nagarajan

    Animals in captivity are often confined in small barren enclosures, preventing adequate exercise, and socialization with conspecifics. Captivity is also known for depriving young individuals' association with maternal relatives by weaning away from their mothers' earlier than what their peers...

  18. The Ethical Disconnect of the Circus: Humanity's acceptance of Performing Elephants

    | Contributor(s):: Jaynes, Mike

  19. Shooting Elephants in Zimbabwe: An Intellectual Journey

    | Contributor(s):: Simonsen, Ken

  20. Social group formation and genetic relatedness in reintroduced Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus) in Thailand

    | Contributor(s):: Thitaram, C., Dejchaisri, S., Somgird, C., Angkawanish, T., Brown, J., Phumphuay, R., Chomdech, S., Kangwanpong, D.

    Captive-held elephants were recruited from several parts of Thailand and released as part of a reintroduction project. Wild elephants with a herd matriarch generally contain the same matrilineal line and are genetically related. However, reintroduced elephants are less likely to be related, but...