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  1. Are wild animals suited to a travelling circus life?

    Contributor(s):: Iossa, G., Soulsbury, C. D., Harris, S.

    A comprehensive synopsis of the welfare of captive, wild (ie non-domesticated) animals in travelling circuses is missing. We examined circus animal welfare and, specifically, behaviour, health, living and travelling conditions. We compared the conditions of non-domesticated animals in circuses...

  2. Keeping circus elephants temporarily in paddocks - the effects on their behaviour

    Contributor(s):: Schmid, J.

  3. Introduction of foreign female Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus ) into an existing group: behavioural reactions and changes in cortisol levels

    Contributor(s):: Schmid, J., Heistermann, M., Ganslosser, U., Hodges, J. K.

    The present study examined the extent to which the introduction of three female Asian elephants (aged 3, 11 and 27 years) into a group of 5 (1 male, 4 female) elephants at Munster zoo, Germany, affects the behaviour and urinary cortisol levels of the animals involved. At Munster, only the females...

  4. Auditory stimulation as enrichment for zoo-housed Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus )

    Contributor(s):: Wells, D. L., Irwin, R. M.

    This study explored the effect of auditory stimulation on the behaviour and welfare of four zoo-housed, female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). All animals were exposed, in an ABA design, to two conditions of auditory stimulation: a 'control' (no auditory stimulation), and an 'experimental'...

  5. Stereotypic swaying and serum cortisol concentrations in three captive African elephants ( Loxodonta africana )

    Contributor(s):: Wilson, M. L., Bloomsmith, M. A., Maple, T. L.

    The behaviour and serum cortisol concentrations of three captive female African elephants (Loxodonta africana) were studied to determine whether their stereotypic swaying was more prevalent before regularly scheduled events in the elephants' routine, and whether the elephants that exhibited more...