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  1. Development and Validation of Broiler Welfare Assessment Methods for Research and On-farm Audits

    Contributor(s):: Meyer, Meaghan M., Johnson, Anna K., Bobeck, Elizabeth A.

    Required auditing of on-farm broiler welfare in the United States has increased; however, a lack of validated tools exists for assessment of enrichment. National Chicken Council (NCC) guidelines were used on a subset of 300 Ross 308 broilers out of 1200 to validate and adapt welfare measures....

  2. Provisioning of live black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) benefits broiler activity and leg health in a frequency- and dose-dependent manner

    Contributor(s):: Ipema, Allyson F., Gerrits, Walter J. J., Bokkers, Eddie A. M., Kemp, Bas, Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth

    Fast-growing broilers spend most their time inactive and are therefore prone to experience leg problems. Environmental enrichment that facilitates intrinsically motivated behaviours can potentially promote activity and reduce leg problems, thereby improving broiler welfare. A promising...

  3. Efforts to Ban the Routine Tail Docking of Pigs and to Give Pigs Enrichment Materials via EU Law: Where Do We Stand a Quarter of a Century on?

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Elena Nalon, Nancy De Briyne

    In its role as guardian of the Treaties, the European Commission must ensure that Member States enforce EU law within their territories. If adequate enforcement is found to be wanting, the Commission also has the power to take infringement procedures as a corrective measure. The case of...

  4. Safewalk: Improving Enrichment and Adoption Rates for Shelter Dogs by Changing Human Behavior

    | Contributor(s):: Bright, Terri M., Hadden, Louise

    Shelter dogs are typically cared for by staff and volunteers. At the Boston location of the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, prior to 2009, any member of the public who was older than 16 years of age and attended 1 orientation could walk dogs available for adoption....

  5. Olfactory Enrichment in California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus): An Effective Tool for Captive Welfare?

    | Contributor(s):: Samuelson, Mystera M., Lauderdale, Lisa K., Pulis, Kelly, Solangi, Moby, Hoffland, Tim, Lyn, Heidi

    In the wild, California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are exposed to a wide variety of sensory information, which cannot be replicated in captive environments. Therefore, unique procedures are necessary for maintaining physiological and psychological health in nonhuman animals in captivity....

  6. Instituting Dark-Colored Cover to Improve Central Space Use Within Guinea Pig Enclosure

    | Contributor(s):: Byrd, Charles P., Winnicker, Christina, Gaskill, Brianna N.

    Domestic guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) in laboratories have been shown to actively avoid the centers of their cages. This experiment tested a novel, dark-colored “shader” placed over the central portion of a cage. Based on the observed behavior of wild guinea pig species, it was...

  7. Effects of Calf Horn as Chews on the Behavior of Laboratory Dogs

    | Contributor(s):: Ketter, Daphne A., Klima, André, Küchenhoff, Helmut, Dobenecker, Britta, Schmidt, Jörg, Erhard, Michael H., Döring, Dorothea

    It is increasingly required that non-human animals in laboratories are provided with adequate enrichment to promote the welfare of the animals. In a previous publication we showed that laboratory dogs intensively used the horn of calf hooves as chewing objects. In this report, we describe the...

  8. Does the location of enrichment material affect behavior and dirtiness in growing female pigs?

    | Contributor(s):: Dalmau, Antoni, Areal, Bruno, Machado, Silvana, Pallisera, Joaquim, Velarde, Antonio

    The objective of this study was to investigate if female growing pigs spend similar amounts of time exploring a wooden stick as they do exploring enrichment material regardless of its proximity to the feeder. Forty-eight pigs aged 18 to 26 weeks allocated to 16 pens with three pigs per pen were...

  9. Does Enrichment Improve Well Being in Animals under Human Care? A Case Study of Two Harbor Seals (Phoca Vitulina)

    | Contributor(s):: Vaicekauskaite, Ruta, Schneider, Jennifer N., Delfour, Fabienne

    Harbor seals in the wild live in a stimulating environment; therefore, nonhuman-animal caretakers have increasingly been using environmental enrichment to improve the well being of seals under human care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an object-based environmental enrichment program...

  10. Behavior and Welfare of Domestic Cats Housed in Cages Larger than U.S. Norm

    | Contributor(s):: Stella, Judith L., Croney, Candace C., Buffington, C. Tony

    The effect of providing additional floor space on cat behavior and welfare is not well documented. This study involved replication of an investigation of cats’ responses to enhanced cage and room environments using cages of 0.56 m2 with the same methodology but an increased space allowance of 1.1...

  11. Advances in Applied Zoo Animal Welfare Science

    | Contributor(s):: Ward, Samantha J., Sherwen, Sally, Clark, Fay E.

    Nonhuman animal welfare science is the scientific study of the welfare state of animals that attempts to make inferences about how animals feel from their behavior, endocrine function, and/or signs of physical health. These welfare measurements are applicable within zoos yet inherently more...

  12. The visitor effect in petting zoo-housed animals: Aversive or enriching?

    | Contributor(s):: Farrand, Alexandra, Hosey, Geoff, Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M.

    Two studies were carried out on the effect of visitors on mixed-breed goats, llama, and Vietnamese pot-bellied pigs housed in a petting zoo display within a safari park. In the first study we investigated the effect of the presence and density of visitors on the animals’ behaviour and in the...

  13. Training is enrichment—And beyond

    | Contributor(s):: Westlund, Karolina

    With regards to the issue of animal training in the zoo community, there is some debate as to whether or not it should be considered a type of environmental enrichment (EE). This article suggests four criteria by which an intervention may be considered enrichment. The putative enrichment should...

  14. Sward botanical composition and sward quality affect the foraging behaviour of free-range laying hens

    | Contributor(s):: Breitsameter, Laura, Gauly, Matthias, Isselstein, Johannes

    In a two-year experiment, we investigated the influence of sward plant species composition (sward type), stocking duration and state of sward degradation on the foraging behaviour of chickens. Laying hens (ISA Warren) were pastured on 15 sward types including 14 monocultures of grassland plant...

  15. Short- and long-term effects of eight enrichment materials on the behaviour of finishing pigs fed ad libitum or restrictively

    | Contributor(s):: Zwicker, Bettina, Gygax, Lorenz, Wechsler, Beat, Weber, Roland

    In a semi-natural environment, a lot of the daily activity of pigs is spent in exploratory and foraging behaviour. Providing enrichment material attractive to the pigs both over the short and long term is therefore important in intensive housing systems. This study aimed to investigate the effect...

  16. Responses to novel situations of female and castrated male pigs with divergent social breeding values and different backtest classifications in barren and straw-enriched housing

    | Contributor(s):: Reimert, Inonge, Rodenburg, T. Bas, Ursinus, Winanda W., Kemp, Bas, Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth

    The growth of a pig is not only affected by its own genes, but also by the genes of its pen mates. This indirect effect on a pig's growth is represented as social breeding value (SBV) in a newly developed breeding model. It has been hypothesized that pigs could affect their pen mates’ growth...

  17. Refuge use affects daily activity patterns in female Xenopus laevis

    | Contributor(s):: Archard, Gabrielle A.

    The African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) is widely used for scientific research, but its ecology and behavior are poorly understood. In two experiments, the 24h activity patterns of female X. laevis were monitored. In the first, activity was determined both in the presence and absence of a...

  18. The naked truth: Breeding performance in nude mice with and without nesting material

    | Contributor(s):: Gaskill, Brianna N., Winnicker, Christina, Garner, Joseph P., Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R.

    In laboratories, mice are housed at ambient temperatures between 20 and 24°C, which is below their lower critical temperature of 30°C, but comfortable for human workers. Thus, mice are under chronic thermal stress, which can compromise many aspects of physiology from metabolism to pup growth....

  19. Learning performance of gestating sows called to the feeder

    | Contributor(s):: Kirchner, Jasmin, Manteuffel, Christian, Manteuffel, Gerhard, Schrader, Lars

    A call feeding station in which sows learn to be allowed to enter a feeding station only after being called by an individual acoustic signal has been shown to reduce agonistic interactions in front of the feeding station. Here, we tested important prerequisites for integration of a call feeding...

  20. Is training zoo animals enrichment? A Letter to the Editor

    | Contributor(s):: Westlund, Karolina

    2014Applied Animal Behaviour Science152100-1020168-159110.1016/j.applanim.2013.12.013text