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  1. Environmental enrichment: an experiment in biosocial intervention

    Contributor(s):: Chiapperino, Luca

  2. Environmental enrichment: increasing the biological relevance of captive environments

    Contributor(s):: Newberry, R. C.

  3. Environmental Enrichments for a Group of Captive Macaws: Low Interaction Does Not Mean Low Behavioral Changes

    Contributor(s):: Reimer, Jéssica, Maia, Caroline Marques, Santos, Eliana Ferraz

    Environmental enrichment has been widely used to improve conditions for nonhuman animals in captivity. However, there is no consensus about the best way to evaluate the success of enrichments. This study evaluated whether the proportion of time spent interacting with enrichments indicated the...

  4. Environmentally enriching American mink (Neovison vison) increases lymphoid organ weight and skeletal symmetry, and reveals differences between two sub-types of stereotypic behaviour

    | Contributor(s):: Diez-Leon, M., Bursian, S., Galicia, D., Napolitano, A., Palme, R., Mason, G.

    Enrichment studies for wild carnivores (e.g., in zoos) are often short-term, use enrichments of unknown motivational significance, and focus on glucocorticoids and stereotypic behaviour (SB), ignoring other stress-relevant variables. Our study assessed the broad behavioural and physiological...

  5. Epidemiology of domestic cat behavioral and welfare issues: a survey of Brazilian referral animal hospitals in 2009

    | Contributor(s):: Souza-Dantas, L. M. de, Soares, G. M., D'Almeida, J. M., Paixao, R. L.

    Few feline behavioral categories, especially concerning their social behavior, have been studied so far. These include: the domestic cat social structure, relationships among individuals and communication among social groups. However, cats have become popular companion animals in many countries...

  6. Evaluating environmental enrichment as a method to alleviate pain after castration and tail docking in pigs

    | Contributor(s):: Backus, Brittany L., McGlone, John J.

    Castration and tail docking are common management practices performed on commercial swine farms in the US and around the world to reduce adverse behaviors and the occurrence of boar taint. However, these practices themselves are a welfare concern for the piglet because they cause acute pain. The...

  7. Evaluating the effects of a temporary fostering program on shelter dog welfare

    | Contributor(s):: Gunter, L. M., Feuerbacher, E. N., Gilchrist, R. J., Wynne, C. D. L.

  8. Evaluation of an innovative approach for sensory enrichment in zoos: semiochemical stimulation for captive lions ( Panthera leo)

    | Contributor(s):: Martinez-Macipe, M., Lafont-Lecuelle, C., Manteca, X., Pageat, P., Cozzi, A.

    Despite improvements in zoo housing and management conditions over the last years, zoo animals may still present undesirable behaviours, such as aggression, stereotypies, boredom and a general absence of natural behaviours. In order to improve animal welfare, researchers are constantly looking...

  9. Evaluation of environmental and intrinsic factors that contribute to stereotypic behavior in captive rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta)

    | Contributor(s):: Gottlieb, D. H., Maier, A., Coleman, K.

    Full body repetitive behaviors, known as motor stereotypic behaviors (MSBs), are one of the most commonly seen abnormal behaviors in captive non-human primates, and are frequently used as a behavioral measure of well-being. The main goal of this paper was to examine the role of environmental...

  10. Evaluation of factors affecting emotional responses in zoo visitors and the impact of emotion on conservation mindedness

    | Contributor(s):: Powell, D. M., Bullock, E. V. W.

    Creating experiences for visitors that increase their biological knowledge and inspire conservation mindedness is a critical task for zoos and aquariums. A growing body of literature suggests that emotional stimulation is affected by characteristics of both the visitor and the visitor's...

  11. Evaluation of on-farm veal calves' responses to unfamiliar humans and potential influencing factors

    | Contributor(s):: Leruste, H., Bokkers, E. A. M., Heutinck, L. F. M., Wolthuis-Fillerup, M., Werf, J. T. N. van der, Brscic, M., Cozzi, G., Engel, B., Reenen, C. G. van, Lensink, B. J.

  12. Evaluation of the Impact of Behavioral Opportunities on Four Zoo-Housed Aardvarks (Orycteropus afer)

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Jennifer Hamilton, Grace Fuller, Stephanie Allard

    Evaluations of enrichment are critical to determine if an enrichment program is meeting stated goals. However, nocturnal species can present a challenge if their active periods do not align with caretakers’ schedules. To evaluate enrichment for four aardvarks housed with a natural light...

  13. Examination of enrichment using space and food for African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park

    | Contributor(s):: Hacker, C. E., Miller, L. J., Schulte, B. A.

  14. Experience of moderate bedding affects behaviour of growing pigs

    | Contributor(s):: Munsterhjelm, C., Peltoniemi, O. A. T., Heinonen, M., Halli, O., Karhapaa, M., Valros, A.

    Effects of early substrate-enrichment on behaviour and productivity of pigs were evaluated in a trial with four siblings as the experimental unit. Pens either were (=E) or were not (=0) moderately bedded with wood shavings and chopped straw during suckling (0-4 weeks of age), nursery (5-9 weeks)...

  15. Expert consultation on weighting factors of criteria for assessing environmental enrichment materials for pigs

    | Contributor(s):: Bracke, M. B. M., Zonderland, J. J., Bleumer, E. J. B.

    EC directive 2001/93/EC states that pigs must have permanent access to a sufficient quantity of material to enable proper investigation and manipulation activities. This directive requires further interpretation. In order to facilitate the further implementation of the directive into national,...

  16. Expert judgement on enrichment materials for pigs validates preliminary RICHPIG model

    | Contributor(s):: Bracke, M. B. M., Zonderland, J. J., Bleumer, E. J. B.

    EC directive 2001/93/EC states that pigs must have permanent access to a sufficient quantity of material to enable proper investigation and manipulation activities. This directive requires further interpretation. In order to facilitate the further implementation of the directive into national,...

  17. Expert opinion regarding environmental enrichment materials for pigs

    | Contributor(s):: Bracke, M. B. M.

    The aim of this article is to report on the expert opinion regarding the provision of environmental enrichment for pigs. A questionnaire was sent to 53 pig welfare scientists who were asked to specify which enrichment materials they considered sufficient to ensure pig welfare; 68% responded. 89%...

  18. Exploration as an indicator of good welfare in beef bulls: an attempt to develop a test for on-farm assessment

    | Contributor(s):: Westerath, H. S., Laister, S., Winckler, C., Knierim, U.

    Exploration appears to be carried out for its own purpose due to being self-rewarding. Furthermore, it increases environmental certainty with the effect of increased predictability and control of the environment. We, therefore, supposed that exploratory behaviour is associated with positive...

  19. Exploratory behaviour in domestic cats ( Felis silvestris catus Linnaeus, 1758): a review

    | Contributor(s):: Machado, J. C., Genaro, G.

    It is possible to understand exploratory behaviour as an activity sponsored by a new stimulus, which consists in acts and postures that enable to collect information about an object or an unfamiliar environment. The exploration has strong implications for the survival of the individual and of its...

  20. Exploring heifers' perception of 'positive' treatment through their motivation to pursue a retreated human

    | Contributor(s):: Bertenshaw, C. E., Rowlinson, P.

    This pilot study investigates dairy heifers' perception of 'positive treatment' by a human (stroking and brushing) through a test of appetitive motivation. The hypothesis was that positive treatment by a human results in heifers pursuing a human to seek further positive treatment. Thirty-seven...