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  1. Effects of human state park visitation rates on escape behavior of white-tailed deer

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Nicholas M. Sutton, Edward J. Heske

    State parks are typically established to preserve natural or native habitats for wildlife while simultaneously providing recreational experiences for humans. However, because of their proximity to urban centers, the level of human visitation associated with state parks may be highly variable....

  2. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Occurrence of ESKAPE Bacteria Group in Dogs, and the Related Zoonotic Risk in Animal-Assisted Therapy, and in Animal-Assisted Activity in the Health Context

    | Contributor(s):: Santaniello, A., Sansone, M., Fioretti, A., Menna, L. F.

  3. Effect of pre-weaning temporary isolation within different age periods on the early post-weaning behaviour of juvenile lambs

    | Contributor(s):: Simitzis, Panagiotis, Petrou, Miria, Demiris, Nikos, Deligeorgis, Stelios

    Temporary maternal separation is a stressful situation typical under modern husbandry practices and may have an undesirable impact on lamb welfare. However, at present there is insufficient evidence on temporary maternal separation effects on the behaviour of juvenile lambs. The aim of the...

  4. Gradual weaning during an extended lactation period improves performance and behavior of pigs raised in a multi-suckling system

    | Contributor(s):: van Nieuwamerongen, S. E., Soede, N. M., van der Peet-Schwering, C. M. C., Kemp, B., Bolhuis, J. E.

    We studied effects of two weaning procedures on the development of pigs raised in a multi-suckling (MS) system with five sows and their litters. One MS group was subjected to a gradual weaning treatment during a lactation period of 9 wk, which included forced intermittent-suckling (IS) for 10h/d...

  5. Interspecific evaluation of octopus escape behavior

    | Contributor(s):: Wood, J. B., Anderson, R. C.

    The well-known ability of octopuses to escape enclosures is a behavior that can be fatal and, therefore, is an animal welfare issue. This study obtained survey data from 38 participants - primarily scientists and public aquarists who work with octopuses - on 25 described species of octopus. The...

  6. Do American crows pay attention to human gaze and facial expressions?

    | Contributor(s):: Clucas, Barbara, Marzluff, John M., Mackovjak, David, Palmquist, Ila

  7. Individual behavioural characteristics in pigs and their impact on production

    | Contributor(s):: Kooij, E. van E. van der, Kuijpers, A. H., Schrama, J. W., Ekkel, E. D., Tielen, M. J. M.

    In the first of 2 experiments, 823 piglets were tested with the backtest (piglet put on its back and held by the experimenter, and escape behaviour measured) at 10 and 17 days of age. Production parameters, such as average daily weight gain and lean meat percentage, were recorded. In the second,...

  8. Investigating fear in domestic rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss , using an avoidance learning task

    | Contributor(s):: Yue, S., Moccia, R. D., Duncan, I. J. H.

    The capacity of rainbow trout to experience fear was assessed using an avoidance learning task. Each of 13 fish was placed individually into a two-chambered shuttle tank where it could be subjected to the putative frightening stimulus of a plunging dip net in either chamber. The fish could escape...

  9. Effects of novelty on rats' responses to CO<sub>2</sub>; exposure

    | Contributor(s):: Niel, L., Kirkden, R. D., Weary, D. M.

    Laboratory rats are routinely killed using a gradually increasing concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas. However, CO2 exposure has been shown to cause aversion and to increase exploratory and escape behaviours in rats. We examined whether these responses are due, in part, to novelty, using...

  10. Effects of sex composition on fear measured as tonic immobility and vigilance behaviour in large flocks of laying hens

    | Contributor(s):: Oden, K., Gunnarsson, S., Berg, C., Algers, B.

    Fear can be a damaging stressor, resulting in impaired animal welfare and poor production economy. Often fear reactions are elicited in situations that are in some way related to predator defence. As males have a guarding role, mixing the sexes might be a way of reducing fear in large groups of...

  11. Behavioral considerations of headstarting as a conservation strategy for endangered Caribbean rock iguanas. (Special Issue: Conservation, enrichment and animal behavior.)

    | Contributor(s):: Alberts, A. C.

    Headstarting animals in captivity prior to reintroduction into the wild has proven to be a valuable strategy in the conservation of critically endangered Caribbean rock iguanas (genus Cyclura). However, a major concern associated with headstarting programs is that some animals reared in a captive...

  12. Responses of pet cats to being held by an unfamiliar person, from weaning to three years of age

    | Contributor(s):: Lowe, S. E., Bradshaw, J. W. S.

    We have determined the extent to which individual responses of domestic cats on being handled by an unfamiliar person are stable between 2 and 33 months of age. Twenty-nine household cats from nine litters were tested at 2, 4, 12, 24 and 33 months of age, by being held for 1 minute by a standard,...

  13. Adrenocorticotrophin-induced stress response in captive vicunas ( Vicugna vicugna ) in the Andes of Chile

    | Contributor(s):: Bonacic, C., Macdonald, D. W., Villouta, G.

    The vicuna is mainly used in two ways: wild captured, shorn and returned to the wild; or wild captured and maintained in captivity as part of a programme of sustainable use in the Andes of South America. Farming of wild vicunas has hitherto involved no assessment of their welfare. In this study a...

  14. Changes in ear-pinna temperature as a useful measure of stress in sheep ( ovis aries )

    | Contributor(s):: Lowe, T. E., Cook, C. J., Ingram, J. R., Harris, P. J.

    Activation of the sympathetic nervous system, with associated increases in heart rate and the redistribution of blood in preparation for 'fight or flight', is an integral part of the 'defence reaction'. In sheep, the defence reaction involves vasoconstriction in the ear-pinna. If decreases in...