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  1. Test of temperament in mink is influenced by a shelf in the front of the cage and the stimulus size rather than by features of the test person

    Contributor(s):: Henriksen, Britt I. F., Møller, Steen H., Malmkvist, Jens

    The study evaluates the effect of different test conditions on the temperament of farm mink, using the stick test. We hypothesised that mink perceive some test conditions as more fear eliciting. Specifically, we hypothesised that (A) the dimension of the presented stimulus in the test, a wooden...

  2. Pigs with but not without access to pieces of recently harvested wood show reduced pen-mate manipulation after a provision of feed and straw

    Contributor(s):: Telkanranta, Helena, Valros, Anna

    In barren environments of commercial farms, pig often redirect their rooting and chewing behaviours at other pigs, which can lead to tail biting. When materials such as straw are provided, the quantity is usually too small to have an effect. The aim of this study was to test whether small...

  3. The effect of qualitative feed restriction in broiler breeder pullets on fear and motivation to explore

    Contributor(s):: Tahamtani, Fernanda M., Riber, Anja B.

    Restrictively fed broiler breeders are known to have increased motivation to explore and reduced fearfulness because hunger increases the motivation to search for and to acquire food, forcing the birds to face and engage with aversive stimuli that they would otherwise avoid. The aim of this study...

  4. My Reflections on Understanding Animal Emotions for Improving the Life of Animals in Zoos

    Contributor(s):: Grandin, Temple

    Scientists are often reluctant to attribute emotions to nonhuman animals that are similar to human emotions. When the author published her early studies, reviewers prohibited the word fear. Fearful behavior had to be described as agitated. The core emotional systems described by Panksepp may...

  5. Does the location of enrichment material affect behavior and dirtiness in growing female pigs?

    Contributor(s):: Dalmau, Antoni, Areal, Bruno, Machado, Silvana, Pallisera, Joaquim, Velarde, Antonio

    The objective of this study was to investigate if female growing pigs spend similar amounts of time exploring a wooden stick as they do exploring enrichment material regardless of its proximity to the feeder. Forty-eight pigs aged 18 to 26 weeks allocated to 16 pens with three pigs per pen were...

  6. Short- and long-term effects of eight enrichment materials on the behaviour of finishing pigs fed ad libitum or restrictively

    Contributor(s):: Zwicker, Bettina, Gygax, Lorenz, Wechsler, Beat, Weber, Roland

    In a semi-natural environment, a lot of the daily activity of pigs is spent in exploratory and foraging behaviour. Providing enrichment material attractive to the pigs both over the short and long term is therefore important in intensive housing systems. This study aimed to investigate the effect...

  7. Locomotor play of veal calves in an arena: Are effects of feed level and spatial restriction mediated by responses to novelty?

    Contributor(s):: Rushen, Jeffrey, de Passillé, Anne Marie

    When calves are placed in an open arena, they perform locomotor play, which provides a time-efficient means of assessing playfulness. To use this as a method of assessing welfare, we need to relate playfulness to other welfare indicators and understand what factors influence results. The novelty...

  8. Learning and context-specific exploration behaviour in hatchery and wild brown trout

    Contributor(s):: Adriaenssens, Bart, Johnsson, Jörgen I.

    In this study we investigate whether rearing environment (wild vs. hatchery) affects the ability of brown trout parr (Salmo trutta) to learn two foraging tasks. Hatchery- and wild-reared brown trout were trained in two different foraging tasks: locating food hidden in a maze and finding a cryptic...

  9. Impact of prenatal stress and environmental enrichment prior to weaning on activity and social behaviour of piglets (Sus scrofa)

    Contributor(s):: Brajon, Sophie, Ringgenberg, Nadine, Torrey, Stephanie, Bergeron, Renée, Devillers, Nicolas

    Prenatal stress (PNS) can have detrimental effects on behaviour and welfare, such as decreased exploration. Whether housing enrichment before weaning compensate negative effect of PNS in commercial pigs is unknown. To address this question, 44 sows were assigned to either a mixing stress (T) or a...

  10. Evaluating measures of exploratory behaviour in sows around farrowing and during lactation—A pilot study

    Contributor(s):: Valros, Anna, Pedersen, Lene Juul, Pöytäkangas, Merja, Jensen, Margit Bak

    There are very few studies on the need to perform exploratory behaviour of sows around farrowing and during lactation, except for during the nest-building period. Exploratory behaviour in pigs may reflect appetitive foraging motivated by hunger, or appetitive behaviour related to other...

  11. Genetics of the Novel Object Test outcome in laying hens

    Contributor(s):: Rozempolska-Rucinska, Iwona, Kibala, Lucyna, Prochniak, Tomasz, Zieba, Grzegorz, Lukaszewicz, Marek

    The purpose of the study was to answer the question whether the behavioural reactions to a novel object can serve as a criterion in selection toward lowering the fearfulness level in laying hens. Fear can be a harmful emotional state resulting from perceiving of an experience as a potential...

  12. Does enrichment improve reptile welfare? Leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) respond to five types of environmental enrichment

    Contributor(s):: Bashaw, Meredith J., Gibson, Mallory D., Schowe, Devan M., Kucher, Abigail S.

    Animal welfare is a high priority for pet owners and accredited zoos and aquariums. Current approaches to measuring welfare focus on identifying consensus among behavioral and physiological indicators of positive and negative emotions. Environmental enrichment is a common strategy used to improve...

  13. Unpredictability in food supply during early life influences growth and boldness in European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax

    Contributor(s):: Sébastien, Ferrari, Leguay, Didier, Vergnet, Alain, Vidal, Marie-Odile, Chatain, Béatrice, Bégout, Marie-Laure

    Biological variability is no longer considered as statistical noise, but rather as an adaptive benefit. This variability comes from consistent differences in behavioral and physiological responses among individuals to a changing/challenging environment, named “coping style”, “temperament” or...

  14. Use of a maze test to assess spatial learning and memory in cattle: Can cattle traverse a complex maze?

    Contributor(s):: Hirata, Masahiko, Tomita, Chihiro, Yamada, Karin

    Maze tests were conducted to assess spatial learning and memory in Japanese Black cows (Bos taurus). The test arena (14×14m) was designed so that it could contain no maze or one of four different mazes of increasing complexity (L1–L4 mazes), with a food reward at the opposite end of the release...

  15. Validation of modified open field behaviour as a measure of trait anxiety in the dog

    Contributor(s):: Wormald, Dennis, Lawrence, Andrew J., Carter, Gabrielle, Fisher, Andrew D.

    Trait anxiety may be a predisposing factor for anxiety-related behavioural problems in dogs. This study aimed to measure and quantify trait anxiety using novel behavioural paradigms. Diazepam is an anxiolytic drug which can be used to validate behavioural paradigms that are designed to measure...

  16. Barren housing and negative handling decrease the exploratory approach in farmed mink

    Contributor(s):: Bak, Anne Sandgrav, Malmkvist, Jens

    We examined the influence of cage enrichment and different types of short-term experiences on the temperament of farmed mink. We used juvenile Palomino mink (n = 600, housed in pairs of one male and one female) in a two-factor design with cage environment (BAR: barren vs. ENR: cage enriched with...

  17. The role of individual behavioral distinctiveness in exploratory and anti-predatory behaviors of red-browed Amazon parrot (Amazona rhodocorytha) during pre-release training

    Contributor(s):: Paulino, Rafael, Nogueira-Filho, Sérgio Luiz Gama, Nogueira, Selene Siqueira da Cunha

    Differences in the temperament of individuals may influence how animals cope with environmental challenges and must be considered in a pre-release training program. In this study we aimed to evaluate individual distinctiveness in the expression of exploratory and anti-predatory behaviors of...

  18. Free-choice exploration increases affiliative behaviour in zebrafish

    Contributor(s):: Graham, Courtney, von Keyserlingk, Marina A. G., Franks, Becca

    Cognitive stimulation has been shown to be rewarding and capable of eliciting positive emotions in several species. In contrast to the abundant learning and exploration opportunities available in nature, captive environments can be under-stimulating-with the potential to induce anhedonia and...

  19. The pet in contemporary art

    Contributor(s):: Elmarie Pretorius

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the figure of the pet in contemporary art. I will argue that the pet offers rich potential for creative exploration that challenges the conventional binaries of self/other, human/animal, and tame/wild in a way that tries to speak of a different...

  20. Wildlife Encounters by Lewis and Clark: A Spatial Analysis of Interactions between Native Americans and Wildlife

    Contributor(s):: Andrea S. Laliberte, William J. Ripple

    The Lewis and Clark journals contain some of the earliest and most detailed written descriptions of a large part of the United States before Euro-American settlement. We used the journal entries to assess the influence of humans on wildlife distribution and abundance. Areas with denser human...