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  1. A survey of abnormal repetitive behaviors in North American river otters housed in zoos

    Contributor(s):: Morabito, P., Bashaw, M. J.

    Stereotypic behaviors, indicating poor welfare and studied in a variety of species (especially carnivores), appear related to characteristics of current and past environments. Although North American river otters (Lontra canadensis) often develop abnormal, repetitive, possibly stereotypic...

  2. Behavior of feral horses in response to culling and GnRH immunocontraception

    Contributor(s):: Ransom, J. I., Powers, J. G., Garbe, H. M., Oehler, M. W., Sr., Nett, T. M., Baker, D. L.

    Wildlife management actions can alter fundamental behaviors of individuals and groups, which may directly impact their life history parameters in unforeseen ways. This is especially true for highly social animals because changes in one individual's behavior can cascade throughout its social...

  3. Behavioural mechanisms of intake rate by heifers grazing swards of contrasting structures

    Contributor(s):: Mezzalira, J. C., Carvalho, P. C. de F., Fonseca, L., Bremm, C., Cangiano, C., Gonda, H. L., Laca, E. A.

    The relationship between herbage intake by herbivores and herbage available depends on the interaction between sward structure and animal behaviour. This relationship is a crucial component determining the stability, function and productivity of grazing systems. The present study aims at...

  4. Behavioural patterns of heifers under intensive and extensive continuous grazing on species-rich pasture in the Czech Republic

    Contributor(s):: Hejcmanova, P., Stejskalova, M., Pavlu, V., Hejcman, M.

    This study examines the effects of season and of two grazing intensities, namely extensive grazing (EG) and intensive grazing (IG), on the grazing behaviour of heifers on species-rich upland pasture in the Czech Republic. Ten or eight (IG), and six or four (EG) heifers were continuously stocked...

  5. Behavioural response of pure Ankole and crossbred (Ankole * Holstein) cows to seasonal pasture variations in south-western Uganda

    Contributor(s):: Idibu, J., Kabi, F., Mpairwe, D.

    This study evaluated the effects of season and pasture species on variations in sward composition, pasture quantity (plant-height and biomass) and quality [crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD)]. Behavioural responses of a group of 10...

  6. Breed and maternal effects on the intake of tannin-rich browse by juvenile domestic goats ( Capra hircus )

    Contributor(s):: Glasser, T. A., Ungar, E. D., Landau, S. Y., Perevolotsky, A., Muklada, H., Walker, J. W.

    Goat breeds differ in their consumption of tannin-rich browse, but the relative contributions of genetics and learning to these differences is unclear. The objective of this study was to differentiate between the effects of breed (nature) and rearing environment (nurture) on consumption of a...

  7. Cattle habitat selection and associated habitat characteristics under free-range grazing within heterogeneous Montane rangelands of Alberta

    Contributor(s):: Kaufmann, J., Bork, E. W., Blenis, P. V., Alexander, M. J.

  8. Comparative study of trophic behaviour and herd structure in wild and feral goats living in a Mediterranean island: management implications

    Contributor(s):: Rivera-Sanchez, L., Cassinello Roldan, J., Baraza Ruiz, E., BartolomeFilella, J.

    The aim of this study was to compare the trophic behaviour and the social structure of Majorcan wild goats and feral goats present in the island of Majorca. The former are descendants of an ancestral goat ecotype introduced in the island in the late Neolithic, whereas feral goats come from...

  9. Condensed tannins reduce browsing and increase grazing time of free-ranging goats in semi-arid savannas

    Contributor(s):: Mkhize, N. R., Heitkonig, I. M. A., Scogings, P. F., Dziba, L. E., Prins, H. H. T., Boer, W. F. de

    Tannin concentrations fluctuate spatially and temporally within and among plant species, with consequences for forage quality of herbivores. The extent to which these fluctuations influence foraging activities of goats is not fully understood. While accounting for the effects of the time of the...

  10. Degree of synchrony based on individual observations underlines the importance of concurrent access to enrichment materials in finishing pigs

    Contributor(s):: Zwicker, B., Weber, R., Wechsler, B., Gygax, L.

    Pigs are sociable animals with a strong motivation to explore and forage, and it has been stated that they have a strong motivation to do so synchronously. We examined the synchrony of exploration in groups of finishing pigs when enrichment materials were offered. We used a novel measure of...

  11. Development of early foraging behaviour of domestic chicks in varying social contexts

    Contributor(s):: Gajdon, G. K., Mundwiler, B., Stauffacher, M.

    Two aspects of foraging development might be crucial to learning in precocial chicks: what food particles look like and what food sites look like. Previous research indicates that there are innate dispositions for particle preferences and for preferring the type of food sites experienced between...

  12. Diversity in horse enthusiasts with respect to horse welfare: an explorative study

    Contributor(s):: Visser, E. K., Wijk-Jansen, E. E. C. van

    A reduced level of welfare of horses is related to management factors such as low forage feeding, short feeding time, social isolation, and lack of unrestrained exercise. It has been assumed that welfare problems can be reduced and/or partly prevented by improving the knowledge and skills of...

  13. Ear and tail postures as indicators of emotional valence in sheep. (Special Issue: Animal suffering and welfare.)

    Contributor(s):: Reefmann, N., Kaszas, F. B., Wechsler, B., Gygax, L.

    To date, most studies on animal emotions have focused on the assessment of negative emotional states, and there is a lack of approaches to characterising positive emotional states. The aim of this investigation was to measure differences in ear and tail postures in sheep exposed to situations...

  14. Effect of forage presentation on feed intake behaviour in stabled horses

    Contributor(s):: Ellis, A. D., Fell, M., Luck, K., Gill, L., Owen, H., Briars, H., Barfoot, C., Harris, P.

    In some stabled horses, the lack of foraging opportunity leads to a reduction in chewing time with consequent negative impacts on the digestive system and potentially development of stereotypies. This study aimed to compare the effect of four types of haynets on feed intake behaviour in stabled...

  15. Effect of processing and feeding strategy of the spineless cactus ( Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.) for lactating cows: ingestive behavior

    Contributor(s):: Vilela, M. da S., Ferreira, M. de A., Azevedo, M. de, Modesto, E. C., Farias, I., Guimaraes, A. V., Bispo, S. V.

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of feeding strategy and processing of the spineless cactus on the ingestive behavior of lactating Holstein cows. Eight cows with a mean live weight of 453+or-75.8 kg, production of 14 kg of milk per day and 20 weeks of lactation at the beginning of...

  16. Effects of feeding management and group composition on agonistic behaviour of group-housed horses

    Contributor(s):: Burla, J. B., Ostertag, A., Patt, A., Bachmann, I., Hillmann, E.

    Under natural conditions, horses spend 12-18 h of a day with synchronous grazing, but for stabled horses, the amount of forage and thus duration of feed intake usually are restricted. In group-housed horses, therefore, feeding times are often situations with increased levels of agonistic...

  17. Effects of fly disturbance on the behaviour of a population of reintroduced Przewalski horses ( Equus ferus przewalskii ) in Mongolia

    Contributor(s):: King, S. R. B., Gurnell, J.

    Flies constitute a cost to animals by feeding from them, passing on disease or by preventing them feeding effectively. These costs could be more severe to animals suffering from some kind of stress such as reintroduction as part of a conservation programme. This study focused on the effects of...

  18. Equine ingestion of haylage harvested at different plant maturity stages

    Contributor(s):: Muller, C. E.

    The influence of plant maturity at harvest of haylage on equine ingestion times and ingestive behaviour was studied. Haylage was harvested at three different occasions: June, July and August, from the primary growth of the same grass-dominated sward. Twelve adult horses of European warmblood type...

  19. Foraging behaviour of beef heifers and ewes in natural grasslands with distinct proportions of tussocks

    Contributor(s):: Bremm, C., Laca, E. A., Fonseca, L., Mezzalira, J. C., Elejalde, D. A. G., Gonda, H. L., Carvalho, P. C. de F.

  20. Foraging mechanics and their outcomes for cattle grazing reproductive tropical swards

    Contributor(s):: Benvenutti, M. A., Gordon, I. J., Poppi, D. P., Crowther, R., Spinks, W.

    For grazing animals an important determinant of animal performance is the rate of nutrient intake (RNI) which depends on diet quality and instantaneous intake rate (IIR). In turn, diet quality and IIR are the outcome of the interaction between the morphology and behaviour of the animal and the...