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  1. Commercialization of perennial GE crops: looming challenges for regulatory frameworks

    Contributor(s):: Bagavathiannan, M. V., Spok, A., Acker, R. C. van

    Overall, the deregulation of genetically engineered (GE) crops for commercial cultivation in North America has been a success story. In several cases, however, GE crops have sparked concerns and disagreements among the stakeholders and there are incidences of court lawsuits, including a recent...

  2. Towards understanding the impacts of the pet food industry on world fish and seafood supplies

    Contributor(s):: Silva, S. S. de, Turchini, G. M.

    The status of wild capture fisheries has induced many fisheries and conservation scientists to express concerns about the concept of using forage fish after reduction to fishmeal and fish oil, as feed for farmed animals, particularly in aquaculture. However, a very large quantity of forage fish...

  3. An automatic system to record foraging behaviour in free-ranging ruminants

    Contributor(s):: Rutter, S. M., Champion, R. A., Penning, P. D.

    Precise measurements of grazing behaviour are required to develop an understanding of the factors affecting the foraging behaviour of free-ranging domestic ruminants. An automatic, microcomputer-based system for the digital recording of the jaw movements of free-ranging cattle and sheep is...

  4. Are genetic differences in foraging behaviour of laying hen chicks paralleled by hybrid-specific differences in feather pecking?

    Contributor(s):: Klein, T., Zeltner, E., Huber-Eicher, B.

    Feather pecking is a behavioural disorder in laying hens which consists of pecking the feathers of conspecifics, causing feather damage or even injuries to the skin. Its development can be explained by redirection of foraging behaviour. While the occurrence of feather pecking strongly depends on...

  5. Behavioural responses of cattle to shared foraging with wild herbivores in an East African rangeland

    Contributor(s):: Odadi, W. O., Okeyo-Owuor, J. B., Young, T. P.

    We assessed whether prior foraging by wild herbivores affected foraging behaviour of cattle in Laikipia rangeland, Kenya, during February 2001, August 2001 and February 2002. The study compared cattle bite rate, step rate and bites per step in plots exclusively accessible to cattle and those...

  6. Diet preference for grass and legumes in free-ranging domestic sheep and cattle: current theory and future application

    Contributor(s):: Rutter, S. M.

    This paper reviews the current theory and potential practical applications of research on the diet preference for grass and legumes in grazing domestic sheep and cattle. Although much of this work has focussed on grass and clover as a model system, it has wider theoretical implications and...

  7. Disturbance effects of environmental stimuli on pig spatial memory

    Contributor(s):: Laughlin, K., Huck, M., Mendl, M.

    Ten male pigs were trained to perform a win-shift foraging task in an 8-arm radial maze. Each day, they individually entered the maze to search for food randomly located in 4 of the 8 arms (search). After finding and eating the food, they were returned to their home pens for a retention interval...

  8. Do the stereotypies of pigs, chickens and mink reflect adaptive species differences in the control of foraging?

    Contributor(s):: Mason, G., Mendl, M.

    Species differences in food-related stereotypies and natural foraging behaviour are discussed, and evolutionary explanations for these species differences, and reasons why apparent species differences in stereotypy may be artefacts of husbandry are postulated.

  9. Domestication effects on foraging strategy, social behaviour and different fear responses: a comparison between the red junglefowl ( Gallus gallus ) and a modern layer strain

    Contributor(s):: Schutz, K. E., Forkman, B., Jensen, P.

    According to the resource allocation theory, behaviours that have high energetic costs should decrease in frequency in breeds that are selected to invest a higher proportion of energy into production traits. We studied differences between red junglefowl, the ancestor of domesticated breeds, and a...

  10. Effects of feed- and water-based enrichment on activity and cannibalism in Muscovy ducklings

    Contributor(s):: Riber, A. B., Mench, J. A.

    Cannibalism is a major problem for commercial production of Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata). Surprisingly little is known about the ontogeny of cannibalism in ducks or how to reduce/prevent the problem in a welfare-friendly way. The preventative method typically used by the industry is...

  11. Effects of floor-feeding and the presence of a foraging substrate on the behaviour and stress physiological response of individually housed gilts

    Contributor(s):: Leeuw, J. A. de, Ekkel, E. D., Jongbloed, A. W., Verstegen, M. W. A.

    Both restricted feeding and barren housing have a negative influence on sow welfare. The aim of this study was to test whether sows that have to search for their feed in a substrate on the floor show less stereotyped (and other abnormal) behaviour and have a lower physiological stress response....

  12. Effects of gender and group size on the time-activity budgets of adult breeding ostriches ( Struthio camelus ) in a farming environment

    Contributor(s):: McKeegan, D. E. F., Deeming, D. C.

    Twenty-six adult ostriches in breeding condition, maintained outdoors, were studied to determine their diurnal time-activity budget in the UK during the months of July and August. Males and females from pairs (1 male, 1 female), trios (1 male, 2 females), a small group (group 1: 3 males 8...

  13. Effects of social behaviour on the spatial distribution of sheep grazing a complex vegetation mosaic

    Contributor(s):: Sibbald, A. M., Oom, S. P., Hooper, R. J., Anderson, R. M.

    In complex environments, the spatial distribution of preferred food types will be a major factor influencing the distribution of foraging animals. However, in highly social animals, such as sheep, social interactions may modify foraging behaviour and hence influence both where animals feed and...

  14. Environmental enrichment affects the fear and exploratory responses to novelty of young Amazon parrots

    Contributor(s):: Meehan, C. L., Mench, J. A.

    The development of techniques to reduce fear responses of captive animals is important because fear is generally considered an undesirable emotional state that is related to increased risk of injury and decreased biological functioning. We tested the effects of environmental enrichments designed...

  15. Factors involved in the improvement of the use of hen runs

    Contributor(s):: Zeltner, E., Hirt, H.

    Free-range systems improve the welfare of laying hens. However, hen runs are often used only close to the poultry house and only a small proportion of hens are outside. Several studies indicate that structuring elements in the hen run improve the frequency and distribution of hens in the run. In...

  16. Feather damaging behaviour in parrots: a review with consideration of comparative aspects

    Contributor(s):: Zeeland, Y. R. A. van, Spruit, B. M., Rodenburg, T. B., Riedstra, B., Hierden, Y. M. van, Buitenhuis, B., Korte, S. M., Lumeij, J. T.

    Feather damaging behaviour (also referred to as feather picking or feather plucking) is a behavioural disorder that is frequently encountered in captive parrots. This disorder has many characteristics that are similar to trichotillomania, an impulse control disorder in humans. Unfortunately, to...

  17. Feeding behaviour of sheep on shrubs in response to contrasting herbaceous cover in rangelands dominated by Cytisus scoparius L

    Contributor(s):: Pontes, L. da S., Agreil, C., Magda, D., Gleizes, B., Fritz, H.

    The foraging responses of ewes faced with a diversity of feed items and their effects on broom (Cytisus scoparius L.) consumption were examined. The experiment was conducted on a farm in the autumn with ewes (n=33) grazing three small paddocks (0.44 ha on average, for at least 10 days each)...

  18. Feeding enrichment in an opportunistic carnivore: the red fox

    Contributor(s):: Kistler, C., Hegglin, D., Wurbel, H., Konig, B.

    In captive carnivores, species-specific behaviour is often restricted by inadequate feeding regimens. Feeding live prey is not feasible in most places and food delivery is often highly predictable in space and time which is considerably different from the situation in the wild. As a result,...

  19. Foraging opportunity and increased physical complexity both prevent and reduce psychogenic feather picking by young Amazon parrots

    Contributor(s):: Meehan, C. L., Millam, J. R., Mench, J. A.

    Although many authors have suggested that the quality of the cage environment contributes to the development and performance of psychogenic feather picking by parrots, there is little scientific evidence for this relationship. In chickens, there is an established relationship between absence of...

  20. Group sizes and resting locations of free range pigs when grazing in a natural environment

    Contributor(s):: Rodriguez-Estevez, V., Sanchez-Rodriguez, M., Gomez-Castro, A. G., Edwards, S. A.

    A herd of 86 Iberian pigs aged 13+or-0.5 months and with an average live weight of 110+or-1.3 kg at the start of the study was followed to monitor their social organisation (spontaneous group size: GS) and resting preferences when free ranging on natural pastures in a dehesa of evergreen oaks...