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  1. The harm principle and genetically modified food. (Special Issue: Two systems - one world.)

    Contributor(s):: Holtug, N.

    It is suggested that the Harm Principle can be viewed as the moral basis on which genetically modified (GM) food is currently regulated. It is then argued (a) that the concept of harm cannot be specified in such a manner as to render the Harm Principle a plausible political principle, so this...

  2. A quantitative safety assessment model for transgenic protein products produced in agricultural crops

    Contributor(s):: Howard, J. A., Donnelly, K. C.

    Transgenic plants are now being used to develop pharmaceutical and industrial products in addition to their use in crop improvement. Using confinement requirements, these transgenic plants are grown and processed under conditions that prevent intermixing with commodity crops. Regulatory agencies...

  3. Exploiting abstract possibilities: a critique of the concept and practice of product patenting

    Contributor(s):: Radder, H.

    Developments in biotechnology and genomics have moved the issue of patenting scientific and technological inventions toward the centre of interest. In particular, the patentability of genes of plants, animals, or humans and of genetically modified (parts of) living organisms has been discussed,...

  4. Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains from pet animals and their relationship to human isolates

    Full-text: Available

    | Contributor(s):: Strommenger, B., Kehrenberg, C., Kettlitz, C., Cuny, C., Verspohl, J., Witte, W., Schwarz, S.

    Objectives: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from pet animals were characterized and compared with human isolates from clonal complexes most prevalent in Central Europe. Methods: S. aureus isolates were investigated for their in vitro susceptibility to antimicrobial...

  5. Animal welfare: should we change housing to better accommodate the animal or change the animal to accommodate the housing?

    | Contributor(s):: Cheng, Heng-Wei

    Animal welfare (well-being) can be generally defined as 'a state of harmony between the animal and its environment, characterized by optimal physical, behavioural and psychological functioning and high quality of the animal's life'. Since its inception in the early nineteenth century, through...

  6. Domestication - from behaviour to genes and back again

    | Contributor(s):: Jensen, P.

    During domestication, animals have adapted with respect to behaviour and an array of other traits. This tends to give rise to a specific domestication phenotype, involving similar changes in colour, size, physiology and behaviour among different species. Hence, domestication offers a model for...

  7. Genetics and genomics of animal behaviour and welfare - challenges and possibilities. (Special Issue: Farm animal welfare since the Brambell report.)

    | Contributor(s):: Jensen, P., Buitenhuis, B., Kjaer, J., Zanella, A., Mormede, P., Pizzari, T.

    Traditionally, the contribution of applied ethology to animal welfare science has concentrated on understanding the reactions of animals to their housing conditions. Domestication has had small effects on fundamental aspects of animal behaviour, and therefore, the needs of present day...

  8. An approach to canine behavioural genetics employing guide dogs for the blind

    | Contributor(s):: Takeuchi, Y., Hashizume, C., Arata, S., Inoue-Murayama, M., Maki, T., Hart, B. L., Mori, Y.

    The purpose of this study was to attempt to find related variables of the canine genome with behavioural traits of dogs maintained and tested in a guide dog facility which provided a relatively uniform environment. The study involved 81 Labrador Retrievers that were being trained as guide dogs....

  9. Review of 'From genes to animal behavior: Social structures, personalities, communication by color'

    | Contributor(s):: Edenbrow, Mathew

  10. Proceedings of the 6th International Veterinary Behavior Meeting (IVBM), Riccione, Italy, 17-19 June 2007

    A total of 43 abstracts of papers presented at the 6th International Veterinary Behaviour Meeting are included in this issue. The following topics are covered: behaviour; behavioural medicine; and clinical ethology; behavioural development; relationship and influence of owners on behaviour;...

  11. Genetics and animal domestication: new windows on an elusive process

    | Contributor(s):: Dobney, K., Larson, G.

    Domesticated animals are universally familiar. How, when, where and why they became domesticated is less well understood. The genetic revolution of the past few decades has facilitated novel insights into a field that previously was principally the domain of archaeozoologists. Although some of...

  12. Uncertainties of nutrigenomics and their ethical meaning

    | Contributor(s):: Korthals, M., Komduur, R.

    Again and again utopian hopes are connected with the life sciences (no hunger, health for everyone; life without diseases, longevity), but simultaneously serious research shows uncertain, incoherent, and ambivalent results. It is unrealistic to expect that these uncertainties will disappear. We...

  13. Behaviour in pigs from three genotypes segregating at the halothane locus

    | Contributor(s):: Schaefer, A. L., Sather, A. P., Tong, A. K. W., Lepage, P.

    Time-lapse video recordings were made over 24-h periods on 32 halothane-negative pigs (NN) and halothane-positive pigs (nn) and on 16 of their progeny (Nn). Ethograms constructed from the tapes revealed that halothane-positive pigs drank and ate less frequently and spent longer investigating...

  14. Traits and genotypes may predict the successful training of drug detection dogs

    | Contributor(s):: Maejima, M., Inoue-Murayama, M., Tonosaki, K., Matsuura, N., Kato, S., Saito, Y., Weiss, A., Murayama, Y., Ito, S.

    In Japan, approximately 30% of dogs that enter training programs to become drug detection dogs successfully complete training. To clarify factors related to the aptitude of drug detection dogs and develop an assessment tool, we evaluated genotypes and behavioural traits of 197 candidate dogs. The...

  15. Maternal infanticide in sows: incidence and behavioural comparisons between savaging and non-savaging sows at parturition

    | Contributor(s):: Chen, CongYing, Gilbert, C. L., Yang, GuangCheng, Guo, YuanMei, Segonds-Pichon, A., Ma, JunWu, Evans, G., Brenig, B., Sargent, C., Affara, N., Huang, LuSheng

    Aggressive behaviour by newly farrowed sows towards their own offspring, known as savaging, occurs commonly in the domestic pig, with a significant impact upon both the agricultural economy and animal welfare. The aims of this study were to investigate the incidence and nature of this behaviour...

  16. Effect of the halothane gene on pre-slaughter mortality in two Spanish commercial pig abattoirs

    | Contributor(s):: Fabrega, E., Diestre, A., Carrion, D., Font, J., Manteca, X.

    A total of 107 ear samples from all the pigs that died during transport or lairage at two commercial abattoirs in Spain were collected during two months (February and July 2000), in order to determine their halothane genotype (NN, Nn or nn). The frequencies of the three halothane genotypes among...

  17. Differences in the expression of genes in lame and normal broiler chickens identified by subtraction hybridisation

    | Contributor(s):: Butterworth, A., Reeves, N. A., Knowles, T. G., Kestin, S. C.

    In the UK, broiler chickens are normally slaughtered at about six weeks of age when they weigh approximately 2.2 kg; this contrasts with the growth of an 'unimproved' traditional strain of bird such as a White Sussex, which would weigh about 800 g at the same age. Lameness, characterised by...

  18. Domestication, selection, behaviour and welfare of animals - genetic mechanisms for rapid responses

    | Contributor(s):: Jensen, P.

    Increased production has been the major goal of animal breeding for many decades, and the correlated side-effects have grown to become a major issue in animal welfare. In this paper, the main genetic mechanisms in which such side-effects may occur are reviewed with examples from our own research...

  19. Quality of life and the evolution of the brain

    | Contributor(s):: Kendrick, K. M.

    The dual problem of explaining brain evolution and the way in which it has led to wide species differences in behaviour and physiology has often appeared intractable to scientists. The main limiting factor is that we do not understand enough about how brains work to appreciate why gross or fine...

  20. Challenges and paradoxes in the companion-animal niche

    | Contributor(s):: McGreevy, P. D., Bennett, P. C.

    By definition, the companion-animal niche demands merely that animals must provide companionship. At first glance, this may seem easy enough, but the forces that contribute to success in this niche are complex. Indeed, success as a companion is rarely measured in terms of biological fitness, and...