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  1. Freedom of cropping and the good life: political philosophy and the conflict between the organic movement and the biotech industry over cross-contamination

    Contributor(s):: Scott, D.

    This paper begins by describing recent controversies over cross-contamination of crops in the United States and European Union. The EU and US are both applying the principle of freedom of cropping to resolve these conflicts, which is based on an individualistic philosophy. However, despite the EU...

  2. Selected papers from Mistra Workshop on Ethical Issues in New Biotechnology in Agriculture, Uppsala, Sweden, 11 September 2013

    Contributor(s):: Sandin, P., Moula, P.

    This selection of three papers addresses ethical issues concerning agricultural biotechnology. The first paper argues that GM food is not necessarily unnatural in a sense that would offer a good reason for favoring food that is not GM. The second paper examines the public debate about GMO...

  3. Ethics of dissent: a plea for restraint in the scientific debate about the safety of GM crops

    Contributor(s):: Mampuys, R., Brom, F. W. A.

    Results of studies that cast doubt on the safety of genetically modified (GM) crops have been published since the first GM crop approval for commercial release. These 'alarming studies' challenge the dominant view about the adequacy of current risk assessment practice for genetically modified...

  4. Pragmatist philosophical reflections on GMOs

    Contributor(s):: Heldke, L.

    This essay examines the public debate about the agricultural biotechnologies known as genetically modified organisms, as that debate is being carried out in its most dichotomizing forms in the United States. It attempts to reveal the power of sharply dichotomous thinking, as well as its limits....

  5. Genetically modified laboratory animals - what welfare problems do they face?

    Contributor(s):: Buehr, M., Hjorth, P. J., Hansen, A. K., Sandoe, P.

    In this article, we respond to public concern expressed about the welfare of genetically modified (GM) non-human animals. As a contribution to the debate on this subject, we attempt in this article to determine in what situations the practice of genetic modification in rodents may generate...

  6. Phenotype characterization and welfare assessment of transgenic rodents (mice)

    Contributor(s):: Mertens, C., Rulicke, T.

    Methods of transgenesis in vertebrate animals in the laboratory involve the stable addition or selective substitution of defined genes into the germline. Although there is a continuous and remarkable development in transgenic technology-the quality of transgenes, gene-targeting vectors, and...

  7. How useful are the concepts of familiarity, biological integrity, and ecosystem health for evaluating damages by GM crops?

    Contributor(s):: Heink, U., Bartz, R., Kowarik, I.

  8. A quantitative safety assessment model for transgenic protein products produced in agricultural crops

    Contributor(s):: Howard, J. A., Donnelly, K. C.

    Transgenic plants are now being used to develop pharmaceutical and industrial products in addition to their use in crop improvement. Using confinement requirements, these transgenic plants are grown and processed under conditions that prevent intermixing with commodity crops. Regulatory agencies...

  9. Are the precautionary principle and the international trade of genetically modified organisms reconcilable?

    Contributor(s):: Matthee, M., Vermersch, D.

    This paper seeks to find possibilities for reconciliation of the implementation of the precautionary principle and the promotion of international trade of genetically modified organisms, based on the assumption that a sustainable development is a right objective to strive for. It starts with an...

  10. Assessment of GM crops in commercial agriculture

    Contributor(s):: Clark, E. A., Lehman, H.

    The calibre of the recent discourse regarding genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has suffered from a lack of consensus on terminology, from the scarcity of evidence upon which to assess risk to health and to the environment, and from value differences between proponents and opponents of GMOs....

  11. Conflict over risks in food production: a challenge for democracy

    Contributor(s):: Jensen, K. K.

    When it comes to conflict over risk management priorities in food production, a number of observers, including myself, have called for some sort of public deliberation as a means of resolving the moral disagreements underlying such conflicts. This paper asks how, precisely, such deliberation...

  12. Contamination, crop trials, and compatibility. (Special issue: Ethics as a dimension of agrifood policy: selected papers from the 4th Congress of the European Society for Agricultural and Food Ethics)

    Contributor(s):: Bruce, D.

    This paper examines the ethical and social questions that underlie the present UK discussion whether genetically modified (GM) crops and organic agriculture can coexist within a given region or are mutually exclusive. A European Commission report predicted practical difficulties in achieving...

  13. Democracy at its best? The consensus conference in a cross-national perspective. (Special Issue: Ethical tools.)

    Contributor(s):: Nielsen, A. P., Lassen, J., Sandoe, P.

    Over recent decades, public participation in technology assessment has spread internationally as an attempt to overcome or prevent societal conflicts over controversial technologies. One outcome of this new surge in public consultation initiatives has been the increased use of participatory...

  14. Ethical and value-based aspects of the European Commission's precautionary principle. (Special issue: The Precautionary Principle)

    Contributor(s):: Carr, S.

    In February 2000, the European Commission adopted a communication on the precautionary principle. This states how the commission intends to apply the principle and establishes guidelines for its application. The document is intended to inform discussions on international agreements. In...

  15. Ethical considerations at the various stages in the development, production, and consumption of GM crops. (Special Issue: Two systems - one world.)

    Contributor(s):: Reiss, M. J.

    The aim of this paper is to clarify the ethical issues surrounding genetically modified (GM) crops by examining the various stages or levels in their development, production, and consumption. Previous work about the acceptability or non-acceptability of GM crops has tended to conflate these...

  16. Exploring the links between science, risk, uncertainty, and ethics in regulatory controversies about genetically modified crops

    Contributor(s):: Carr, S., Levidow, L.

    Just as a stream of genetically modified crops looked set to be approved for commercial production in the European Union, the approval procedure appears to have become bogged down once again by disagreements among and within member states. Old controversies have resurfaced in new forms. The...

  17. Finding a precautionary approach to technological developments - lessons for the evaluation of GM crops. (Special issue: The Precautionary Principle)

    Contributor(s):: Mayer, S., Stirling, A.

    The introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops and foods into Europe has generated considerable controversy. Despite a risk assessment system that is intended to be precautionary in nature, the decisions that have been taken have not gathered public confidence. Key attributes of a...

  18. Genetically modified (GM) crops: precautionary science and conflicts of interests

    Contributor(s):: Myhr, A. I., Traavik, T.

    Risk governance of GM plants and GM food products is presently subject to heated scientific and public controversies. Scientists and representatives of the biotechnology industry have dominated debates concerning safety issues. The public is suspicious with regard to the motives of scientists,...

  19. Global trade in GM food and the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety: consequences for China

    Contributor(s):: Xue, DaYuan, Tisdell, C.

    The UN Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, adopted in Montreal on 29 January 2000 and opened for signature in Nairobi on 15-26 May 2000, will exert a profound effect on international trade in genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and their products. In this paper, the potential effects of various...

  20. Herbicide resistant sugar beet - what is the problem? (Special Issue: Two systems - one world.)

    Contributor(s):: Madsen, K. H., Sandoe, P.

    Risk assessment studies of herbicide resistant sugarbeet have revealed no risks to human health or the environment. Indeed it appears that commercial growth of this crop might secure benefits such as decreased pesticide use and increased biodiversity. However, widespread resistance to genetically...