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A study of how experts and non-experts make decisions on releasing genetically modified plants
Contributor(s):: Brana, G. M. R., Miranda-Vilela, A. L., Grisolia, C. K.
Ethical discourse on the use of genetically modified crops: a review of academic publications in the fields of ecology and environmental ethics
Contributor(s):: Gregorowius, D., Lindemann-Matthies, P., Huppenbauer, M.
Ethical frameworks and farmer participation in controversial farming practices
Contributor(s):: Cardoso, S. P., James, H. S., Jr.
GMOs and global justice: applying global justice theory to the case of genetically modified crops and food
Contributor(s):: Toft, K. H.
How useful are the concepts of familiarity, biological integrity, and ecosystem health for evaluating damages by GM crops?
Contributor(s):: Heink, U., Bartz, R., Kowarik, I.
Qualified for evaluation? A GM potato and the orders of rural worth
Contributor(s):: Valve, H.
A quantitative safety assessment model for transgenic protein products produced in agricultural crops
Contributor(s):: Howard, J. A., Donnelly, K. C.
Transgenic plants are now being used to develop pharmaceutical and industrial products in addition to their use in crop improvement. Using confinement requirements, these transgenic plants are grown and processed under conditions that prevent intermixing with commodity crops. Regulatory agencies...
Assessment of GM crops in commercial agriculture
Contributor(s):: Clark, E. A., Lehman, H.
The calibre of the recent discourse regarding genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has suffered from a lack of consensus on terminology, from the scarcity of evidence upon which to assess risk to health and to the environment, and from value differences between proponents and opponents of GMOs....
Coexistence of plants and coexistence of farmers: is an individual choice possible?
Contributor(s):: Binimelis, R.
The introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in Europe has been characterized by controversy. In 2002, the European Union introduced the concept of "coexistence" as a compromise solution that, through the establishment of science-based technical measures, should allow the market to...
Commercialization of perennial GE crops: looming challenges for regulatory frameworks
Contributor(s):: Bagavathiannan, M. V., Spok, A., Acker, R. C. van
Overall, the deregulation of genetically engineered (GE) crops for commercial cultivation in North America has been a success story. In several cases, however, GE crops have sparked concerns and disagreements among the stakeholders and there are incidences of court lawsuits, including a recent...
Conflict over risks in food production: a challenge for democracy
Contributor(s):: Jensen, K. K.
When it comes to conflict over risk management priorities in food production, a number of observers, including myself, have called for some sort of public deliberation as a means of resolving the moral disagreements underlying such conflicts. This paper asks how, precisely, such deliberation...
Contamination, crop trials, and compatibility. (Special issue: Ethics as a dimension of agrifood policy: selected papers from the 4th Congress of the European Society for Agricultural and Food Ethics)
Contributor(s):: Bruce, D.
This paper examines the ethical and social questions that underlie the present UK discussion whether genetically modified (GM) crops and organic agriculture can coexist within a given region or are mutually exclusive. A European Commission report predicted practical difficulties in achieving...
Ethical considerations at the various stages in the development, production, and consumption of GM crops. (Special Issue: Two systems - one world.)
Contributor(s):: Reiss, M. J.
The aim of this paper is to clarify the ethical issues surrounding genetically modified (GM) crops by examining the various stages or levels in their development, production, and consumption. Previous work about the acceptability or non-acceptability of GM crops has tended to conflate these...
Exploring the links between science, risk, uncertainty, and ethics in regulatory controversies about genetically modified crops
Contributor(s):: Carr, S., Levidow, L.
Just as a stream of genetically modified crops looked set to be approved for commercial production in the European Union, the approval procedure appears to have become bogged down once again by disagreements among and within member states. Old controversies have resurfaced in new forms. The...
Finding a precautionary approach to technological developments - lessons for the evaluation of GM crops. (Special issue: The Precautionary Principle)
Contributor(s):: Mayer, S., Stirling, A.
The introduction of genetically modified (GM) crops and foods into Europe has generated considerable controversy. Despite a risk assessment system that is intended to be precautionary in nature, the decisions that have been taken have not gathered public confidence. Key attributes of a...
Genetically modified (GM) crops: precautionary science and conflicts of interests
Contributor(s):: Myhr, A. I., Traavik, T.
Risk governance of GM plants and GM food products is presently subject to heated scientific and public controversies. Scientists and representatives of the biotechnology industry have dominated debates concerning safety issues. The public is suspicious with regard to the motives of scientists,...
Global trade in GM food and the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety: consequences for China
Contributor(s):: Xue, DaYuan, Tisdell, C.
The UN Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, adopted in Montreal on 29 January 2000 and opened for signature in Nairobi on 15-26 May 2000, will exert a profound effect on international trade in genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and their products. In this paper, the potential effects of various...
GM crops: patently wrong? (Special issue: Food and the public's health)
Contributor(s):: Wilson, J.
This paper focuses on the ethical justifiability of patents on genetically modified (GM) crops. I argue that there are three distinguishing features of GM crops that make it unethical to grant patents on GM crops, even if we assume that the patent system is in general justified. The first half of...
Herbicide resistant sugar beet - what is the problem? (Special Issue: Two systems - one world.)
Contributor(s):: Madsen, K. H., Sandoe, P.
Risk assessment studies of herbicide resistant sugarbeet have revealed no risks to human health or the environment. Indeed it appears that commercial growth of this crop might secure benefits such as decreased pesticide use and increased biodiversity. However, widespread resistance to genetically...
Is policy towards intellectual property rights addressing the real problems? The case of unauthorized appropriation of genetic resources. (Special issue: Ethics as a dimension of agrifood policy: selected papers from the 4th Congress of the European
Contributor(s):: Tsioumanis, A., Mattas, K., Tsioumani, E.
Unauthorized appropriation of genetic resources has been described by the term "biopiracy." Technological breakthroughs including biotechnological applications can increase considerably the instrumental value of biodiversity as new products or products with new properties can be made....