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Genetically modified laboratory animals - what welfare problems do they face?
Contributor(s):: Buehr, M., Hjorth, P. J., Hansen, A. K., Sandoe, P.
In this article, we respond to public concern expressed about the welfare of genetically modified (GM) non-human animals. As a contribution to the debate on this subject, we attempt in this article to determine in what situations the practice of genetic modification in rodents may generate...
Phenotype characterization and welfare assessment of transgenic rodents (mice)
Contributor(s):: Mertens, C., Rulicke, T.
Methods of transgenesis in vertebrate animals in the laboratory involve the stable addition or selective substitution of defined genes into the germline. Although there is a continuous and remarkable development in transgenic technology-the quality of transgenes, gene-targeting vectors, and...
A study of how experts and non-experts make decisions on releasing genetically modified plants
Contributor(s):: Brana, G. M. R., Miranda-Vilela, A. L., Grisolia, C. K.
Deconstructing the animal in search of the real
Contributor(s):: Aloi, G.
Ethical discourse on the use of genetically modified crops: a review of academic publications in the fields of ecology and environmental ethics
Contributor(s):: Gregorowius, D., Lindemann-Matthies, P., Huppenbauer, M.
Ethical frameworks and farmer participation in controversial farming practices
Contributor(s):: Cardoso, S. P., James, H. S., Jr.
GMOs and global justice: applying global justice theory to the case of genetically modified crops and food
Contributor(s):: Toft, K. H.
How useful are the concepts of familiarity, biological integrity, and ecosystem health for evaluating damages by GM crops?
Contributor(s):: Heink, U., Bartz, R., Kowarik, I.
Qualified for evaluation? A GM potato and the orders of rural worth
Contributor(s):: Valve, H.
A quantitative safety assessment model for transgenic protein products produced in agricultural crops
Contributor(s):: Howard, J. A., Donnelly, K. C.
Transgenic plants are now being used to develop pharmaceutical and industrial products in addition to their use in crop improvement. Using confinement requirements, these transgenic plants are grown and processed under conditions that prevent intermixing with commodity crops. Regulatory agencies...
Are the precautionary principle and the international trade of genetically modified organisms reconcilable?
Contributor(s):: Matthee, M., Vermersch, D.
This paper seeks to find possibilities for reconciliation of the implementation of the precautionary principle and the promotion of international trade of genetically modified organisms, based on the assumption that a sustainable development is a right objective to strive for. It starts with an...
Assessment of GM crops in commercial agriculture
Contributor(s):: Clark, E. A., Lehman, H.
The calibre of the recent discourse regarding genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has suffered from a lack of consensus on terminology, from the scarcity of evidence upon which to assess risk to health and to the environment, and from value differences between proponents and opponents of GMOs....
Coexistence of plants and coexistence of farmers: is an individual choice possible?
Contributor(s):: Binimelis, R.
The introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in Europe has been characterized by controversy. In 2002, the European Union introduced the concept of "coexistence" as a compromise solution that, through the establishment of science-based technical measures, should allow the market to...
Commercialization of perennial GE crops: looming challenges for regulatory frameworks
Contributor(s):: Bagavathiannan, M. V., Spok, A., Acker, R. C. van
Overall, the deregulation of genetically engineered (GE) crops for commercial cultivation in North America has been a success story. In several cases, however, GE crops have sparked concerns and disagreements among the stakeholders and there are incidences of court lawsuits, including a recent...
Conflict over risks in food production: a challenge for democracy
Contributor(s):: Jensen, K. K.
When it comes to conflict over risk management priorities in food production, a number of observers, including myself, have called for some sort of public deliberation as a means of resolving the moral disagreements underlying such conflicts. This paper asks how, precisely, such deliberation...
Contamination, crop trials, and compatibility. (Special issue: Ethics as a dimension of agrifood policy: selected papers from the 4th Congress of the European Society for Agricultural and Food Ethics)
Contributor(s):: Bruce, D.
This paper examines the ethical and social questions that underlie the present UK discussion whether genetically modified (GM) crops and organic agriculture can coexist within a given region or are mutually exclusive. A European Commission report predicted practical difficulties in achieving...
Developing the ethical Delphi. (Special Issue: Ethical tools.)
Contributor(s):: Millar, K., Thorstensen, E., Tomkins, S., Mepham, B., Kaiser, M.
A number of EU institutions and government committees across Europe have expressed interest in developing methods and decision-support tools to facilitate consideration of the ethical dimensions of biotechnology assessment. As part of the work conducted in the EC supported project on ethical...
Developing the Ethical Matrix as a decision support framework: GM fish as a case study. (Special Issue: Ethical tools.)
Contributor(s):: Kaiser, M., Millar, K., Thorstensen, E., Tomkins, S.
The Ethical Matrix was developed to help decision-makers explore the ethical issues raised by agri-food biotechnologies. Over the decade since its inception the Ethical Matrix has been used by a number of organizations and the philosophical basis of the framework has been discussed and analyzed...
Ethical analysis of the use of GM fish: emerging issues for aquaculture development. (Special Issue: Ethics and the politics of food.)
Contributor(s):: Millar, K., Tomkins, S.
Improvements in production methods over the last two decades have resulted in aquaculture becoming a significant contributor to food production in many countries. Increased efficiency and production levels are off-setting unsustainable capture fishing practices and contributing to food security,...
Ethical and value-based aspects of the European Commission's precautionary principle. (Special issue: The Precautionary Principle)
Contributor(s):: Carr, S.
In February 2000, the European Commission adopted a communication on the precautionary principle. This states how the commission intends to apply the principle and establishes guidelines for its application. The document is intended to inform discussions on international agreements. In...