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Genetic and epigenetic variation factors in the relationships between humans and animals
Contributor(s):: Neindre, P. Le
Influence of individual predisposition, maternal experience and lactation environment on the responses of pigs to weaning at two different ages
Contributor(s):: O'Connell, N. E., Beattie, V. E., Sneddon, I. A., Breuer, K., Mercer, J. T., Rance, K. A., Sutcliffe, M. E. M., Edwards, S. A.
This study assessed the effect of predisposition to perform harmful social behaviour, maternal rearing environment, and lactation environment on the responses of pigs to weaning at 3 or 5 weeks of age. Predisposed and non-predisposed gilts were selected as dams for this study at 7 weeks of age....
Influence of the presence of 3-day-old chickens on the behaviour of meat and egg-type posthatch counterparts
Contributor(s):: Mahagna, M., Nir, I., Nitsan, Z.
The effect of 3-day-old 'guides' of broiler or White Leghorn type chickens on posthatch behaviour (eating, drinking, standing and sitting), growth rate and livability was measured in broiler and Leghorn type chickens. Four trials were conducted. One trial was in cages and 3 were on a litter...
Ingestive behavior and growth when chicks from lines differing in feed consumption are reared separately or intermingled
Contributor(s):: Noble, D. O., Dunnington, E. A., Siegel, P. B.
Ingestive behaviour, livability, and body weight were measured in lines of chickens selected for high (HW) and low (LW) juvenile body weight, reared in cages and floor pens as line-separate (S) and line-intermingled (I) flocks. There were 3 trials. Percentages of chicks eating and drinking were...
Reduction of fear in Japanese quail chicks ( Coturnix coturnix japonica ) via genetic selection, early environmental enrichment and regular handling
Contributor(s):: Mills, A. D., Jones, R. B., Faure, J. M.
Traits and genotypes may predict the successful training of drug detection dogs
Contributor(s):: Maejima, M., Inoue-Murayama, M., Tonosaki, K., Matsuura, N., Kato, S., Saito, Y., Weiss, A., Murayama, Y., Ito, S.
In Japan, approximately 30% of dogs that enter training programs to become drug detection dogs successfully complete training. To clarify factors related to the aptitude of drug detection dogs and develop an assessment tool, we evaluated genotypes and behavioural traits of 197 candidate dogs. The...
Behavioural comparison of layer and broiler fowl: measuring fear responses
Contributor(s):: Keer-Keer, S., Hughes, B. O., Hocking, P. M., Jones, R. B.
Broilers and White Leghorns have different temperaments-White Leghorns are regarded as flighty and broilers as docile. This difference in temperament is sometimes interpreted as a difference between the strains in underlying fearfulness. Five experiments were carried out to compare fear responses...
Effect of genetic selection for dustbathing activity on productive traits in Japanese quail
Contributor(s):: Gerken, M., Petersen, J.
Effects of embryonic corticosterone exposure and post-hatch handling on tonic immobility and willingness to compete in chicks
Contributor(s):: Janczak, A. M., Heikkila, M., Valros, A., Torjesen, P., Andersen, I. L., Bakken, M.
Previous experiments indicate that artificial elevation of egg corticosterone content prior to incubation may increase fear of humans, reduce the willingness to compete with conspecifics and reduce the growth rate of chicks hatching from these eggs. It can also be hypothesized that...
Individual variation in the behaviour of pigs - noise or functional coping strategies?
Contributor(s):: Jensen, P.
Behavioural genetics and domestication
Contributor(s):: Faure, J. M., Mills, A. D.
Environmental stimuli and the frequency of head-shaking in lines of White Leghorn hens
Contributor(s):: Dunnington, E. A., Petrie, C. L., Barbato, G. F., Siegel, P. B.
The effects of various stimuli on the frequency of head-shaking were measured in two lines of White Leghorn hens selected for high (HA) and low (LA) antibody titres to sheep erythrocyte antigen(s). Frequency of head-shaking increased when tapes of random cock vocalizations were played, although...
Fear reactions in trained and untrained horses from dressage and show-jumping breeding lines
Contributor(s):: Borstel, U. U. K. von, Duncan, I. J. H., Lundin, M. C., Keeling, L. J.
Horses' fear reactions are hazardous to both horses and human beings, but it is not clear whether fear is influenced more by training or by other factors such as genetics. The following study was designed to detect differences between young, untrained (U) and older, well-trained (T) horses of...
Genetic engineering and animal welfare
Contributor(s):: Fox, M. W.
Maternal infanticide in sows: incidence and behavioural comparisons between savaging and non-savaging sows at parturition
Contributor(s):: Chen, CongYing, Gilbert, C. L., Yang, GuangCheng, Guo, YuanMei, Segonds-Pichon, A., Ma, JunWu, Evans, G., Brenig, B., Sargent, C., Affara, N., Huang, LuSheng
Aggressive behaviour by newly farrowed sows towards their own offspring, known as savaging, occurs commonly in the domestic pig, with a significant impact upon both the agricultural economy and animal welfare. The aims of this study were to investigate the incidence and nature of this behaviour...
A mouse is not just a mouse
Contributor(s):: Sluyter, F., Oortmerssen, G. A. van
In this review, we describe the existence and consequences of subspecific and individual variation in the genetic make-up of house mice. The purpose is to illustrate forms of variation that are often neglected in discussions about animal care and experimental design. Different inbred mouse...
Assurance schemes as a tool to tackle genetic welfare problems in farm animals: broilers
Contributor(s):: Cooper, M. D., Wrathall, J. H. M.
Farm assurance schemes can set standards to assure compliance with specific requirements relating to animal welfare. As such, standards can be set to address genetic-related welfare problems in farm animals, such as those associated with fast growth rates in meat chickens (broilers) (Gallus...
Breeding amiable animals? Improving farm animal welfare by including social effects in breeding programmes
Contributor(s):: Rodenburg, T. B., Bijma, P., Ellen, E. D., Bergsma, R., Vries, S. de, Bolhuis, J. E., Kemp, B., Arendonk, J. A. M. van
Social interactions between individuals, such as co-operation and competition, are key factors in evolution by natural selection. As a consequence, evolutionary biologists have developed extensive theories to understand the consequences of social interactions for response to natural selection....
Breeding for behavioural change in farm animals: practical, economic and ethical considerations
Contributor(s):: D'Eath, R. B., Conington, J., Lawrence, A. B., Olsson, I. A. S., Sandoe, P.
In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits, and...
Differences in the expression of genes in lame and normal broiler chickens identified by subtraction hybridisation
Contributor(s):: Butterworth, A., Reeves, N. A., Knowles, T. G., Kestin, S. C.
In the UK, broiler chickens are normally slaughtered at about six weeks of age when they weigh approximately 2.2 kg; this contrasts with the growth of an 'unimproved' traditional strain of bird such as a White Sussex, which would weigh about 800 g at the same age. Lameness, characterised by...