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  1. Reduction of fear in Japanese quail chicks ( Coturnix coturnix japonica ) via genetic selection, early environmental enrichment and regular handling

    Contributor(s):: Mills, A. D., Jones, R. B., Faure, J. M.

  2. Traits and genotypes may predict the successful training of drug detection dogs

    Contributor(s):: Maejima, M., Inoue-Murayama, M., Tonosaki, K., Matsuura, N., Kato, S., Saito, Y., Weiss, A., Murayama, Y., Ito, S.

    In Japan, approximately 30% of dogs that enter training programs to become drug detection dogs successfully complete training. To clarify factors related to the aptitude of drug detection dogs and develop an assessment tool, we evaluated genotypes and behavioural traits of 197 candidate dogs. The...

  3. Behavioural comparison of layer and broiler fowl: measuring fear responses

    Contributor(s):: Keer-Keer, S., Hughes, B. O., Hocking, P. M., Jones, R. B.

    Broilers and White Leghorns have different temperaments-White Leghorns are regarded as flighty and broilers as docile. This difference in temperament is sometimes interpreted as a difference between the strains in underlying fearfulness. Five experiments were carried out to compare fear responses...

  4. Effect of genetic selection for dustbathing activity on productive traits in Japanese quail

    Contributor(s):: Gerken, M., Petersen, J.

  5. Effects of embryonic corticosterone exposure and post-hatch handling on tonic immobility and willingness to compete in chicks

    Contributor(s):: Janczak, A. M., Heikkila, M., Valros, A., Torjesen, P., Andersen, I. L., Bakken, M.

    Previous experiments indicate that artificial elevation of egg corticosterone content prior to incubation may increase fear of humans, reduce the willingness to compete with conspecifics and reduce the growth rate of chicks hatching from these eggs. It can also be hypothesized that...

  6. Individual variation in the behaviour of pigs - noise or functional coping strategies?

    Contributor(s):: Jensen, P.

  7. Behavioural genetics and domestication

    Contributor(s):: Faure, J. M., Mills, A. D.

  8. Environmental stimuli and the frequency of head-shaking in lines of White Leghorn hens

    Contributor(s):: Dunnington, E. A., Petrie, C. L., Barbato, G. F., Siegel, P. B.

    The effects of various stimuli on the frequency of head-shaking were measured in two lines of White Leghorn hens selected for high (HA) and low (LA) antibody titres to sheep erythrocyte antigen(s). Frequency of head-shaking increased when tapes of random cock vocalizations were played, although...

  9. Fear reactions in trained and untrained horses from dressage and show-jumping breeding lines

    Contributor(s):: Borstel, U. U. K. von, Duncan, I. J. H., Lundin, M. C., Keeling, L. J.

    Horses' fear reactions are hazardous to both horses and human beings, but it is not clear whether fear is influenced more by training or by other factors such as genetics. The following study was designed to detect differences between young, untrained (U) and older, well-trained (T) horses of...

  10. Genetic engineering and animal welfare

    Contributor(s):: Fox, M. W.

  11. Maternal infanticide in sows: incidence and behavioural comparisons between savaging and non-savaging sows at parturition

    Contributor(s):: Chen, CongYing, Gilbert, C. L., Yang, GuangCheng, Guo, YuanMei, Segonds-Pichon, A., Ma, JunWu, Evans, G., Brenig, B., Sargent, C., Affara, N., Huang, LuSheng

    Aggressive behaviour by newly farrowed sows towards their own offspring, known as savaging, occurs commonly in the domestic pig, with a significant impact upon both the agricultural economy and animal welfare. The aims of this study were to investigate the incidence and nature of this behaviour...

  12. A mouse is not just a mouse

    Contributor(s):: Sluyter, F., Oortmerssen, G. A. van

    In this review, we describe the existence and consequences of subspecific and individual variation in the genetic make-up of house mice. The purpose is to illustrate forms of variation that are often neglected in discussions about animal care and experimental design. Different inbred mouse...

  13. Assurance schemes as a tool to tackle genetic welfare problems in farm animals: broilers

    Contributor(s):: Cooper, M. D., Wrathall, J. H. M.

    Farm assurance schemes can set standards to assure compliance with specific requirements relating to animal welfare. As such, standards can be set to address genetic-related welfare problems in farm animals, such as those associated with fast growth rates in meat chickens (broilers) (Gallus...

  14. Breeding amiable animals? Improving farm animal welfare by including social effects in breeding programmes

    Contributor(s):: Rodenburg, T. B., Bijma, P., Ellen, E. D., Bergsma, R., Vries, S. de, Bolhuis, J. E., Kemp, B., Arendonk, J. A. M. van

    Social interactions between individuals, such as co-operation and competition, are key factors in evolution by natural selection. As a consequence, evolutionary biologists have developed extensive theories to understand the consequences of social interactions for response to natural selection....

  15. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animals: practical, economic and ethical considerations

    Contributor(s):: D'Eath, R. B., Conington, J., Lawrence, A. B., Olsson, I. A. S., Sandoe, P.

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits, and...

  16. Differences in the expression of genes in lame and normal broiler chickens identified by subtraction hybridisation

    Contributor(s):: Butterworth, A., Reeves, N. A., Knowles, T. G., Kestin, S. C.

    In the UK, broiler chickens are normally slaughtered at about six weeks of age when they weigh approximately 2.2 kg; this contrasts with the growth of an 'unimproved' traditional strain of bird such as a White Sussex, which would weigh about 800 g at the same age. Lameness, characterised by...

  17. Domestication, selection, behaviour and welfare of animals - genetic mechanisms for rapid responses

    Contributor(s):: Jensen, P.

    Increased production has been the major goal of animal breeding for many decades, and the correlated side-effects have grown to become a major issue in animal welfare. In this paper, the main genetic mechanisms in which such side-effects may occur are reviewed with examples from our own research...

  18. Genetic parameters for birth difficulty, lamb vigour and lamb sucking ability in Suffolk sheep

    Contributor(s):: Macfarlane, J. M., Matheson, S. M., Dwyer, C. M.

    This study investigates the genetic basis of lamb vigour (defined as neonatal lamb activity and sucking ability) and lambing difficulty as potential traits to be included in selection programmes to improve ewe and lamb welfare. Scores for lamb birth difficulty, vigour and sucking ability were...

  19. Genotype rather than non-genetic behavioural transmission determines the temperament of Merino lambs

    Contributor(s):: Bickell, S., Poindron, P., Nowak, R., Chadwick, A., Ferguson, D., Blache, D.

    Merino ewes have been selected, over 18 generations, for calm (C) or nervous (N) temperament using an arena test and an isolation box test. We investigated the relative contributions of genotype versus the post-partum behaviour of the dam on the temperament of the lambs using a cross-fostering...

  20. Proceedings of the UFAW International Symposium, Darwinian selection, selective breeding and the welfare of animals, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK, 22-23 June 2009

    Contributor(s):: Kirkwood, J. K., Weddell, S., Hubrecht, R. C., Wickens, S. M.

    The 150th anniversary of the publication of The Origin of Species is a good time to consider how selection can affect welfare - the quality of life. Darwin (1859) quoted Youatt's description of selective breeding: "...the magician's wand, by means of which he may summon into life whatever form...