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  1. The effect of early handling of foals on their reaction to handling, humans and novelty, and the foal-mare relationship

    Contributor(s):: Sondergaard, E., Jago, J.

    The natural behaviour of horses in response to danger is to take flight, and consequently human handlers can be injured. Reducing the flight response and general reactivity of horses is therefore likely to reduce the incidence of injuries to handlers. In this experiment we investigated the effect...

  2. The implications of compound chew-bite jaw movements for bite rate in grazing cattle

    Contributor(s):: Ungar, E. D., Ravid, N., Zada, T., Ben-Moshe, E., Yonatan, R., Baram, H., Genizi, A.

    Many aspects of the management of grazing systems are directly or indirectly related to the rate of herbage intake achieved by the animal. Intake rate depends, in part, on the time budget of the process, which derives from the basic behavioural component - the jaw movement. Chewing and biting jaw...

  3. The influence of residual stems on biting rates of cattle grazing Eragrostis lehmanniana Nees

    Contributor(s):: Ruyle, G. B., Hasson, O., Rice, R. W.

    A 65-ha pasture dominated by Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana Nees) grazed by 15 crossbred beef cows 5 to 9 years old of about 448 kg and nursing 3- to 6-month-old calves from June to September 1986 was studied. Plants bitten were categorized as grazed, ungrazed or intermediate based on...

  4. Time budget-, behavioral synchrony- and body score development of a newly released Przewalski's horse group Equus ferus przewalskii , in the Great Gobi B strictly protected area in SW Mongolia

    Contributor(s):: Souris, A. C., Kaczensky, P., Julliard, R., Walzer, C.

    The Przewalski's horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) became extinct in the wild in the 1960s, but survived as a species due to captive breeding. There have been several initiatives to re-introduce the species in central Asia, but until now only two projects in Mongolia establish free-ranging...

  5. Training cows to approach the milking unit in response to acoustic signals in an automatic milking system during the grazing season

    | Contributor(s):: Wredle, E., Munksgaard, L., Sporndly, E.

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether cows in a commercially-managed barn with automatic milking can learn to visit the milking unit in response to an acoustic signal during the grazing season. The study included 10 Swedish Red and White dairy cows, randomly selected from a herd of...

  6. A method for quantification of jaw movements suitable for use on free-ranging cattle

    | Contributor(s):: Matsui, K., Okubo, T.

    A data-logging system for the simultaneous measurement of the J-J interval (the interval between two successive jaw movements), the number of jaw movements and the number of pauses between jaw movements longer than 3 s was developed and tested in free-ranging cattle. The system, which consists of...

  7. A new ambulatory data logger for a long-term determination of grazing and rumination behaviour on free-ranging cattle, sheep and goats

    | Contributor(s):: Matsui, K.

    A new ambulatory data logger, which simultaneously records the number of jaw movements and number of pauses between jaw movements longer than 3 s min-1, was developed and tested using cattle, sheep and goats. Since this apparatus was more simple, light-weight and compact than previously developed...

  8. A study of the investigatory behavior of the dairy cow

    | Contributor(s):: Nielsen, M. A., Luescher, U. A.

    A commission to investigate the possible ingestion by dairy cattle of air-dropped wildlife baits for vaccination against sylvatic rabies provided an opportunity for a detailed study of bovine investigatory behaviour. Twelve unarmed baits (half of which were placed in a bag with live slurry...

  9. Behavior of grazing purebred and crossbred dairy cows under tropical conditions

    | Contributor(s):: Matias, J. M.

    Recent dairy development thrusts in the Philippines focus on increasing existing stock through the importation of dairy animals, particularly Holstein x Sahiwal crossbreds. This study was conducted to determine and compare the behaviour of purebred Holstein and crossbred (Holstein x Sahiwal)...

  10. Changes in ingestive behaviour of yearling dairy heifers due to changes in sward state during grazing down of rotationally stocked ryegrass or white clover pastures

    | Contributor(s):: Orr, R. J., Rutter, S. M., Yarrow, N. H., Champion, R. A., Rook, A. J.

    A group of 12 Holstein x Friesian heifers were rotationally stocked in sequence on uninterrupted spring growths and regrowths following cutting of perennial ryegrass and then on regrowths of white clover. Measurements of ingestive behaviour and plant factors were made every 2-3 days during four...

  11. Changes in temporal and spatial associations between pairs of cattle during the process of familiarisation

    | Contributor(s):: Patison, K. P., Swain, D. L., Bishop-Hurley, G. J., Robins, G., Pattison, P., Reid, D. J.

    Mixing unfamiliar individuals is a common practice in livestock production systems. However, a change in social structure can create social stresses, which can adversely affect animal welfare and reduce production. In this study, social interaction metrics were used to investigate interaction and...

  12. Conditioned aversion to olive tree leaves ( Olea europaea L.) in goats and sheep

    | Contributor(s):: Manuelian, C. L., Albanell, E., Salama, A. A. K., Caja, G.

    With the aim of adverting to olive tree leaves, lithium chloride (LiCl) was used in goats and sheep. A total of 10 dairy does (Murciano-Granadina breed) and 10 dairy ewes (Manchega breed) were used in 2 simultaneous experiments for comparing olive leaf intake in averted vs. control animals. Does...

  13. Designated rooting areas to reduce pasture damage by pregnant sows

    | Contributor(s):: Mheen, H. W. van der, Spoolder, H. A. M.

  14. Diet choice in grazing sheep: a new approach to investigate the relationships between preferences and intake-rate on a daily time scale

    | Contributor(s):: Prache, S., Bechet, G., Damasceno, J. C.

    For the herbivore grazing heterogeneous vegetation, optimal foraging theory has been proposed to predict which food components would be included in the diet on the basis of their relative profitability. We investigated the relationships between preferences and intake-rate in four groups of six...

  15. Diet selection in dairy goats grazing woody Mediterranean rangeland

    | Contributor(s):: Perevolotsky, A., Landau, S., Kababia, D., Ungar, E. D.

    Species selection, diet quality and voluntary intake were studied in Anglo-Nubian x Damascus dairy goats grazing woody Mediterranean rangeland in the Jerusalem Hills, Israel. Measurements comprised direct observation of grazing behaviour, with the recording of all species encountered along the...

  16. Effect of previous experience on sheep grazing leafy spurge

    | Contributor(s):: Olson, B. E., Wallander, R. T., Thomas, V. M., Kott, R. W.

    Herbivores develop preferences for certain plant species in several ways. One way is to learn from role models, another is through postingestive feedback. Experiments were conducted to determine (1) whether yearling sheep exposed to leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) as lambs graze it more readily...

  17. Effects of age and conditions of exposure on maternally mediated food selection by lambs

    | Contributor(s):: Mirza, S. N., Provenza, F. D.

    Columbia and Targee ewes each with 1 wether lamb were allowed to eat Amelanchier alnifolia but were conditioned with lithium chloride to avoid Cercocarpus montanus (treatment group), or were allowed to eat both species. After the ewes were conditioned, lambs with their mothers were exposed for 5...

  18. Effects of density, season and weather on use of an altitudinal gradient by sheep

    | Contributor(s):: Mysterud, A., Iversen, C., Austrheim, G.

    The distribution of high-quality forage is an important determinant for foraging patterns of ruminants. It has been suggested that herbivores should gradually increase the use of higher altitudes as new, high-quality forage emerges. Further, the ideal-free distribution (IFD) theory predicts a...

  19. Electronic clocks for measuring grazing time of free-ranging cattle: a comparison with vibracorders and visual observations

    | Contributor(s):: Mosley, J. C., Reeves, G. W., Maiga, M. A., Grice, D. M.

    This study used 5 yearling steers to compare grazing time measured by grazing clocks, vibracorders and visual observations. Each steer was fitted with a grazing clock attached to a halter and a vibracorder mounted on the steer's neck. Concurrent visual observations were made at 10-min intervals...

  20. Grazing behavior of free-ranging beef cows to initial and prolonged exposure to fluctuating thermal environments

    | Contributor(s):: Prescott, M. L., Havstad, K. M., Olson-Rutz, K. M., Ayers, E. L., Petersen, M. K.

    Effects of initial and prolonged exposure to cold ambient temperatures on the behaviour of free ranging beef cows were examined over an autumn and winter season. Mean daily temperature (MDT) and short-term thermal stress (STTS) were used to express thermal stressors. Short-term thermal stress was...