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  1. Animal agriculture: symbiosis, culture, or ethical conflict? (Animals and their welfare)

    Contributor(s):: Lund, V., Olsson, I. A. S.

    Several writers on animal ethics defend the abolition of most or all animal agriculture which they consider an unethical exploitation of sentient non-human animals. However, animal agriculture can also be seen as a co-evolution over thousands of years, that has affected biology and behaviour on...

  2. Issues associated with research on sheep parasite control in New Zealand - a descriptive ethic

    Contributor(s):: Morris, M. C.

    In common with much of the English-speaking world, New Zealanders generally oppose the use of animal experimentation where there is no demonstrable and immediate benefit for human, animal, or environmental health. Intrusive experiments on sheep internal and external parasites published between...

  3. Least harm: a defense of vegetarianism from Steven Davis's omnivorous proposal

    Contributor(s):: Matheny, G.

    This paper analyses the article of Steven Davis entitled, "Least Harm," which argues that the number of animals killed in ruminant-pasture production is less than the number of animals killed in crop production. Davis concludes the adoption of an omnivorous diet would cause less harm than the...

  4. The design and implementation of sustainable plant diversity conservation program for alpine meadows and pastures

    Contributor(s):: Baumgartner, J., Hartmann, J.

    The paper describes the design and implementation of a plant biodiversity conservation programme that was developed under funding and time constraints for diverse ecological, social, and institutional environments. The biodiversity programme for alpine meadows and pastures in the Canton of the...

  5. Human behavior influences infectious disease emergence at the human-animal interface

    Contributor(s):: Alexander, K. A., McNutt, J. W.

    Although human behavior is frequently cited as a factor influencing the emergence of disease at the human-animal interface, few empirical studies have demonstrated this relationship. We compare humans and their domestic animals living in close proximity to populations of the endangered African...

  6. Activity bout criteria for grazing dairy cows

    Contributor(s):: Rook, A. J., Huckle, C. A.

    Data on the eating, ruminating and idling activity of grazing dairy cows recorded to a resolution of 1 min were used to study the choice of activity bout criteria and the implications of this choice. An inter-bout length of 5 min was found to be suitable for all 3 activity categories across a...

  7. An automatic system to record foraging behaviour in free-ranging ruminants

    Contributor(s):: Rutter, S. M., Champion, R. A., Penning, P. D.

    Precise measurements of grazing behaviour are required to develop an understanding of the factors affecting the foraging behaviour of free-ranging domestic ruminants. An automatic, microcomputer-based system for the digital recording of the jaw movements of free-ranging cattle and sheep is...

  8. Dietary preference of dairy heifers grazing ryegrass and white clover, with and without an anti-bloat treatment

    Contributor(s):: Rutter, S. M., Orr, R. J., Yarrow, N. H., Champion, R. A.

    The effect of an antibloat treatment on the dietary preference of nonpregnant Holstein x Friesian heifers for ryegrass and white clover was studied. Eight groups of two heifers grazed 0.51 ha plots containing adjacent monocultures of grass alongside clover with either 25 or 75% clover (by ground...

  9. Diurnal patterns of intake rate by sheep grazing monocultures of ryegrass or white clover

    Contributor(s):: Orr, R. J., Penning, P. D., Harvey, A., Champion, R. A.

    The effects of time of day on the ingestive behaviour of groups of 5 sheep grazing monocultures of ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv. Parcour) or white clover (Trifolium repens cv. Kent Wild White), were measured over periods of 1 h starting at 07.30, 11.30, 15.30 and 19.30 h in August 1993. Grazing...

  10. Effect of dairy cattle husbandry on behavioural patterns of red deer ( Cervus elaphus ) in the Italian Alps

    Contributor(s):: Mattiello, S., Redaelli, W., Carenzi, C., Crimella, C.

    The present study aimed to investigate in the field the effect of the presence of cattle on red deer behavioural patterns, in order to provide information that could be used to improve land management strategies. The research was carried out in a summer range at 1500 m a.s.l. in the Italian...

  11. Effects of social behaviour on the spatial distribution of sheep grazing a complex vegetation mosaic

    Contributor(s):: Sibbald, A. M., Oom, S. P., Hooper, R. J., Anderson, R. M.

    In complex environments, the spatial distribution of preferred food types will be a major factor influencing the distribution of foraging animals. However, in highly social animals, such as sheep, social interactions may modify foraging behaviour and hence influence both where animals feed and...

  12. Effects of space allowance on the grazing behaviour and spacing of sheep

    Contributor(s):: Sibbald, A. M., Shellard, L. J. F., Smart, T. S.

    In each of two experiments, four groups of 10 female Scottish Blackface sheep grazed for 2 weeks at each of four space allowances, according to a Greco-Latin Square design. Space allowances were 80, 100, 133 or 200 m2 per head in experiment 1 and 50, 67, 100 or 200 m2 per head in experiment 2....

  13. Eliminative behaviour of free-ranging horses: do they show latrine behaviour or do they defecate where they graze?

    Contributor(s):: Lamoot, I., Callebaut, J., Degezelle, T., Demeulenaere, E., Laquiere, J., Vandenberghe, C., Hoffmann, M.

    In contrast to horses in pastures, it is thought that free-ranging horses do not perform latrine behaviour, i.e. a behavioural pattern whereby the animals graze and defecate in separate areas. However, few studies deal with this particular subject, reporting contrasting conclusions. We...

  14. Evaluation of an active transponder system to monitor spatial and temporal location of cattle within patches of a grazed sward

    Contributor(s):: Swain, D. L., Wilson, L. A., Dickinson, J.

    An active transponder system adapted for animal behaviour studies is described, and the potential of the system to facilitate patch scale monitoring of grazing cows is explored. A preliminary experiment examined the effect of presence and colour of loop aerial wires, on the activity of grazing...

  15. Feeding behaviour of sheep on shrubs in response to contrasting herbaceous cover in rangelands dominated by Cytisus scoparius L

    Contributor(s):: Pontes, L. da S., Agreil, C., Magda, D., Gleizes, B., Fritz, H.

    The foraging responses of ewes faced with a diversity of feed items and their effects on broom (Cytisus scoparius L.) consumption were examined. The experiment was conducted on a farm in the autumn with ewes (n=33) grazing three small paddocks (0.44 ha on average, for at least 10 days each)...

  16. Form but not frequency of beak use by hens is changed by housing system

    Contributor(s):: Shimmura, T., Suzuki, T., Azuma, T., Hirahara, S., Eguchi, Y., Uetake, K., Tanaka, T.

    In order to verify the hypothesis that hens in different housing systems have the same time budget for different beak-related behaviours, we compared the pecking behaviour of hens in six housing systems: small (SC) and large (LC) conventional cages, small (SF) and large (LF) furnished cages,...

  17. Grazing and browsing times of goats with three levels of herbage allowance

    Contributor(s):: Orihuela, A., Solano, J. J.

    Three adjacent mixed irrigated pastures of grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) and shrub (Leucaena leucocephala) were used. Grass height was maintained at 27, 14 and 7 cm for treatments I, II and III, respectively, while the height of bushes (6666 plants/ha) were all kept at 150 cm. DM availability was...

  18. Group sizes and resting locations of free range pigs when grazing in a natural environment

    Contributor(s):: Rodriguez-Estevez, V., Sanchez-Rodriguez, M., Gomez-Castro, A. G., Edwards, S. A.

    A herd of 86 Iberian pigs aged 13+or-0.5 months and with an average live weight of 110+or-1.3 kg at the start of the study was followed to monitor their social organisation (spontaneous group size: GS) and resting preferences when free ranging on natural pastures in a dehesa of evergreen oaks...

  19. Influence of sward height on diet selection by horses

    Contributor(s):: Naujeck, A., Hill, J., Gibb, M. J.

    Foraging herbivores are often faced with spatial and temporal heterogeneity within the vegetation they have available to graze and therefore have to make decisions where and when to graze. The study reported in this paper investigated the influence of sward height on diet selection by horses...

  20. Intake rate during meals and meal duration for sheep in different hunger states, grazing grass or white clover swards

    Contributor(s):: Orr, R. J., Penning, P. D., Rutter, S. M., Champion, R. A., Harvey, A., Rook, A. J.

    Meal patterns and rates of feed intake by grazing herbivores may be markedly different from those found in housed ruminants and monogastrics. Cumulative intakes over the evening meal (satiety curves) were measured using groups of sheep (Ovis aries) grazing monocultures of white clover (Trifolium...