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  1. Fear levels in laying hens carried by hand and by mechanical conveyors

    Contributor(s):: Scott, G. B., Moran, P.

    The fear levels of 5 groups of 16 end-of-lay hens were assessed on 3 consecutive days using the tonic immobility test. The groups were subjected to the following conditions: Group 1 to conveyance on a flat belt conveyor; Group 2 to inversion and conveyance by hand; Group 3 to conveyance by a...

  2. Individual variation in the heart rate of piglets; evidence against stable differences

    Contributor(s):: Webster, S. D., Jones, A. R.

    Heart rate was measured in 15 piglets from 5 litters from multiparous Camborough 12 sows, and analysed with respect to individual animal, behaviour (posture, locomotion, aggression and feeding), age, weight, ranked weight, experimental treatment and data collection session (data collection...

  3. Location of handling and dairy cows' responses to people

    Contributor(s):: Rushen, J., Munksgaard, L., Passille, A. M. B. de, Jensen, M. B., Thodberg, K.

    Cows sometimes do not generalize a learned aversion to a handler from one location to another. In experiment 1, a study was carried out to examined whether cows (n = 24) could learn to avoid handlers in one location but approach them in another. Each cow was treated 7 times, in their home stall...

  4. The effect of early handling of foals on their reaction to handling, humans and novelty, and the foal-mare relationship

    Contributor(s):: Sondergaard, E., Jago, J.

    The natural behaviour of horses in response to danger is to take flight, and consequently human handlers can be injured. Reducing the flight response and general reactivity of horses is therefore likely to reduce the incidence of injuries to handlers. In this experiment we investigated the effect...

  5. The effects of restraint, handling, simulated and real transport in the pig (with reference to man and other species)

    Contributor(s):: Stephens, D. B., Perry, G. C.

    Whilst the processes and effects of animal transportation can be described in direct terms, they can also be regarded as fear-inducing challenges. Some of the physiological and behavioural responses of pigs to aspects of simulated and real transport were examined. Evidence from other species is...

  6. The role of handling in communication between humans and weanling pigs

    Contributor(s):: Tanida, H., Miura, A., Tanaka, T., Yoshimoto, T.

    Eighteen 4-week-old crossbred weanling pigs from 3 litters were allotted at random within litters to 1 of 2 treatments. The pigs in the handling treatment were individually identified and received regular handling from the experimentor for 15 min, 3 times per week for 4 weeks. In addition, the...

  7. Use of aversion-learning techniques to measure distress in sheep

    Contributor(s):: Rushen, J.

    Concern about the welfare of sheep during transport and handling has led to a need to measure distress in sheep objectively. Techniques based on aversion learning may help provide such measures. The techniques provide valid and discriminative measures and can be used to assess the relative degree...

  8. Aggression in replacement grower and finisher gilts fed a short-term high-tryptophan diet and the effect of long-term human-animal interaction

    | Contributor(s):: Poletto, R., Meisel, R. L., Richert, B. T., Cheng, H. W., Marchant-Forde, J. N.

    Aggression can be a major problem for swine production as it negatively impacts the pigs' health and welfare. Increasing tryptophan (TRP) intake to raise brain serotonin (5-HT) - key for aggression control, and long-term positive social handling can reduce stress in pigs. Objective was to...

  9. Behavioural effects of light conditions on red deer in a holding pen

    | Contributor(s):: Pollard, J. C., Littlejohn, R. P.

    To investigate the possibility that fear-related behaviour red deer in an unfamiliar holding pen was reduced by darkening the pen, 8 groups of 10 yearling hinds were confined for 7 min on 2 occasions in a 4 x 6 m indoor enclosure, with a grid of 12 zones painted on the floor. On one occasion the...

  10. Comparison of the effects of two different handling methods on the subsequent behaviour of Anglo-Arabian foals toward humans and handling

    | Contributor(s):: Ligout, S., Bouissou, M. F., Boivin, X.

    Tactile contact is often used to improve the human-foal relationship, in particular during sensitive periods such as weaning. However, the method used to provide the contact (forced or unforced) may affect subsequent reactions to humans. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of forced...

  11. Consistency in avoidance of humans by individual red deer

    | Contributor(s):: Pollard, J. C., Littlejohn, R. P.

    Four groups of red deer, housed inside, were given 3 tests per day for 6 days. All tests began with a person standing at the front wall of the pen for 1 min, the person remained stationary for a further minute (A tests), walked to the centre of the pen and stood for 1 min (B tests), or walked to...

  12. Effects of early handling on later behaviour and stress responses in the silver fox ( Vulpes vulpes )

    | Contributor(s):: Pedersen, V., Jeppesen, L. L.

    Experimental and control groups of fox cubs were formed of 16 males and 16 females born to 7 vixens, and 23 males and 23 females born to 13 other vixens, respectively. From 2 to 8 weeks old the experimental cubs only had routine close physical and verbal contact with humans. From 12 to 20 weeks...

  13. Effects of environmental enrichment and gentle handling on behaviour and fear responses of transported broilers

    | Contributor(s):: Nicol, C. J.

    Four experiments were performed to examine the influence of early environmental enrichment and regular gentle handling on the behaviour and fear responses of transported broilers. Experiment 1 showed that enriched/handled birds had longer tonic immobility durations after transportation than...

  14. Effects of social isolation and restraint on heart rate and behaviour of alpacas

    | Contributor(s):: Pollard, J. C., Littlejohn, R. P.

    Heart rate and behaviour of 16 yearling male alpacas were measured during spatial and visual isolation from other alpacas and when a pair of familiar alpacas was present. In experiment 1, alpacas were free to move in a 2.4 msuperscript 2 wire pen, while in experiment 2, alpacas were held under...

  15. Growth, response to humans and corticosteroids in male pigs housed individually and subjected to pleasant, unpleasant or minimal handling during rearing

    | Contributor(s):: Paterson, A. M., Pearce, G. P.

    The effect of aversive handling during rearing from 36 to 92 kg body weight on growth rate, plasma cortisol concentration and the behavioural and adrenal responses to humans was investigated using 30 Large White X Landrace [male] pigs which were housed and handled as individuals. Ten pigs were...

  16. Handling of extensively kept animals

    | Contributor(s):: Neindre, P. L., Boivin, X., Boissy, A.

    The development of modern agriculture, especially in extensive management systems, leads to an increase in the number of animals per stockman. Thus, the time allocated to each animal by the farmer is decreasing. In extensive management systems animals are often fed by their mothers and receive...

  17. Influence of preweaning handling methods on post-weaning learning ability and manageability of foals

    | Contributor(s):: Mal, M. E., McCall, C. A., Cummins, K. A., Newland, M. C.

    Twenty three foals were used to determine if different amounts of handling between birth and weaning affected their later learning ability and manageability. Foals were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: non-handled (NH) foals were not handled except for necessary maintenance procedures;...

  18. Long-term effects of different handling procedures on behavioural, physiological, and production-related parameters in silver foxes

    | Contributor(s):: Pedersen, V.

    Fifty-one silver fox vixens, were subjected to 3 different handling treatments as cubs (no-handling, gentle or forced handling). As juveniles, the animals were exposed to 3 different behavioural tests at 18, 22, 28 and 32 weeks of age. Both forcibly and gently handled animals showed reduced fear...

  19. Pre-slaughter handling and transport of broiler chickens

    | Contributor(s):: Nico, C. J., Scott, G. B.

    There are severe welfare problems associated with the pre-slaughter handling and transport of broiler chickens as assessed by dead-on-arrivals, physical injury, carcass characteristics, physiological stress responses, fearfulness and aversion. Increased automation of handling procedures may be...

  20. Responses of red deer to restraint in a y-maze preference test

    | Contributor(s):: Pollard, J. C., Littlejohn, R. P., Suttie, J. M.

    To determine whether a y-maze could be used to assess the relative aversiveness of handling treatments used for red deer and how the treatments could most effectively be presented, 24 castrated stags were subjected to 2 simple treatments. In one arm of a y-maze deer were briefly restrained in a...