Case Study: Composite Material Yoke Versus Wooden Yoke for Bullocks’ Comfort
Contributor(s):: Tyagi, Ram Kumar, Singh, Achhaibar
This article addresses the designing of a yoke used to get work output (plowing) from bullocks. The yoke profile was designed in compliance with the profile of the bullock’s body for maximum contact area. Unlike the crude, wooden yoke used in rural India, where modern tilling equipment like a...
Effects of Human–Dog Interactions on Salivary Oxytocin Concentrations and Heart Rate Variability: A Four-Condition Cross-Over Trial
Contributor(s):: Powell, Lauren, Edwards, Kate M., Michael, Scott, McGreevy, Paul, Bauman, Adrian, Guastella, Adam J., Drayton, Bradley, Stamatakis, Emmanuel
Dog ownership is often advocated for its potential benefits to human health, with changes to oxytocin and autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity proposed as possible underlying mechanisms. The aims of the current study were to a) examine the effect of two common types of human–dog interactions...
Veterans and Shelter Dogs: Examining the Impact of a Dog-Walking Intervention on Physiological and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms
Contributor(s):: Krause-Parello, Cheryl A., Friedmann, Erika, Blanchard, Kelly, Payton, Megan, Gee, Nancy R.
When military veterans return from service many are in a state of reintegration from military to civilian life, a transition that can be difficult and stressful. Recent literature supports the use of human–animal interactions to reduce stress. To date there have been few studies that examine the...
The Effects of a Therapy Dog on the Blood Pressure and Heart Rate of Older Residents in a Nursing Home
Contributor(s):: Handlin, Linda, Nilsson, Anne, Lidfors, Lena, Petersson, Maria, Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin
The aim of the present project was to investigate whether repeated visits by a therapy dog to nursing homes might affect the older residents’ systolic blood pressure and heart rate. A secondary aim was to investigate and compare effects (differences in responses) in older people with high and...
Exploring Synchronicity in the Heart Rates of Familiar and Unfamiliar Pairs of Horses and Humans Undertaking an In-Hand Task
Contributor(s):: Hockenhull, Jo, Young, Tamsin J., Redgate, Sarah E., Birke, Lynda
Physiological responses that occur in horses and humans during their interactions, on the ground and during ridden work, have been investigated in a number of studies with some conflicting results. These suggest that in some situations emotional state may be transferred from humans to horses and...
Does Physical Contact with a Dog or Person Affect Performance of a Working Memory Task?
Contributor(s):: Gee, Nancy R., Friedmann, Erika, Coglitore, Victoria, Fisk, Amy, Stendahl, Marcus
Working memory (WM) plays a critical role in the execution of a wide variety of cognitive tasks and predicts academic success. This study was designed to compare the impact of the presence of a dog or a person, and physical contact with them, on the performance of a WM task. It also exam- ined...
Prenatal stress puzzle, the oxytocin piece: Prenatal stress alters the behaviour and autonomic regulation in piglets, insights from oxytocin
Contributor(s):: Rault, Jean-Loup, Mack, Laurie A., Carter, C. Sue, Garner, Joseph P., Marchant-Forde, Jeremy N., Richert, Brian T., Lay, Donald C.
Developmental changes in response to prenatal stressors (PNS) can result in anxiety and abnormal social development in the offspring. Oxytocin (OT) reduces anxiety, whereas OT deficiencies are associated with social behaviour deficits. Hence, we hypothesized that OT could reverse some of the PNS...
An objective measure of reactive behaviour in horses
Contributor(s):: Noble, Glenys K., Blackshaw, Kathryn L., Cowling, Ann, Harris, Patricia A., Sillence, Martin N.
Several tests have been devised in an attempt to detect behaviour modification due to training, supplements or diet in horses. These tests rely on subjective observations in combination with physiological measures, such as heart rate (HR) and plasma cortisol concentrations, but these measures do...
Mother rearing of dairy calves: Reactions to isolation and to confrontation with an unfamiliar conspecific in a new environment
Contributor(s):: Wagner, Kathrin, Barth, Kerstin, Hillmann, Edna, Palme, Rupert, Futschik, Andreas, Waiblinger, Susanne
The aim of this study was to test the effects of mother rearing on behavioural and physiological stress reactions of calves in challenging situations. Thus, we compared mother-reared and artificially reared calves that were kept in the same group but with varying contact with adults....
Emotions in dogs being petted by a familiar or unfamiliar person: Validating behavioural indicators of emotional states using heart rate variability
Contributor(s):: Kuhne, Franziska, Hößler, Johanna C., Struwe, Rainer
Although physical human–dog interactions have an important influence on the human–dog relationship, few studies have proposed the key factors of physical human–dog contact affecting the well-being of dogs. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effect of physical human–dog contact on the...
The effects of transport, riot control training and night patrols on the workload and stress of mounted police horses
Contributor(s):: Munsters, Carolien C. B. M., van den Broek, Jan, van Weeren, René, Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, Marianne M.
Quantifying and evaluating police work is essential to avoid behavioural problems, minimise wastage and maximise welfare of police horses. Behavioural and physiological measures were used to assess the workload and/or stress police horses experience during police work. Further, the influence of...
Towards a more objective assessment of equine personality using behavioural and physiological observations from performance test training
Contributor(s):: König von Borstel, Uta, Pasing, Stephanie, Gauly, Matthias
Current definitions of horse personality traits are rather vague, lacking clear, universally accepted guidelines for evaluation in performance tests. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to screen behavioural and physiological measurements taken during riding for potential links with...
Feed barrier design affects behaviour and physiology in goats
Contributor(s):: Nordmann, Eva, Keil, Nina Maria, Schmied-Wagner, Claudia, Graml, Christine, Langbein, Jan, Aschwanden, Janine, von Hof, Jessica, Maschat, Kristina, Palme, Rupert, Waiblinger, Susanne
Among other things, feed barrier design for goats can differ with regard to ease of leaving, backward view, and presence of physical separation. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the type of feed barrier influences agonistic behaviour and stress. The study involved 55 adult...
Do pigs distinguish between situations of different emotional valences during anticipation?
Contributor(s):: Imfeld-Mueller, Sabrina, Van Wezemael, Lea, Stauffacher, Markus, Gygax, Lorenz, Hillmann, Edna
An animal's welfare is strongly affected by its emotional state. Thus, many recent studies have focused on measuring the emotional states and responses of animals. However, there is still a lack of knowledge on assessing positive emotions, although it is widely accepted that positive emotions are...
Companion Dog Foster Caregiver Program for Older Veterans at the VA Maryland Health Care System: A Feasibility Study
Contributor(s):: Ortmeyer, H. K., Robey, L. C.
Veterans experience mental health conditions at a disproportionate rate compared to their civilian counterparts, and approximately 60% of older veterans who receive their care through the United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) do not meet physical activity (PA) recommendations. We...
Animal-assisted therapy for patients in a minimally conscious state: A randomized two treatment multi-period crossover trial
Contributor(s):: Hediger, K., Petignat, M., Marti, R., Hund-Georgiadis, M.
Do dogs rescue their owners from a stressful situation? A behavioral and physiological assessment
Contributor(s):: Carballo, F., Dzik, V., Freidin, E., Damian, J. P., Casanave, E. B., Bentosela, M.
The Effect of Animal-Assisted Therapy on the State of Patients' Health After a Stroke: A Pilot Study
Contributor(s):: Machova, K., Prochazkova, R., Riha, M., Svobodova, I.
Observing Live Fish Improves Perceptions of Mood, Relaxation and Anxiety, But Does Not Consistently Alter Heart Rate or Heart Rate Variability
Contributor(s):: Gee, N. R., Reed, T., Whiting, A., Friedmann, E., Snellgrove, D., Sloman, K. A.
Indicators of stress in equitation
Contributor(s):: König v. Borstel, U., Visser, E. K., Hall, C.
Stress is a generic concept describing the body’s reaction to external stimuli, including both physiological and psychological factors. Therefore, by definition, the assessment of psychological stress in the exercising horse encompasses the problem of teasing apart the psychological and...