A brief note on some possible factors involved in the reactions of horses to humans
Contributor(s):: Hausberger, M., Muller, C.
In order to investigate relationships of adult horses to humans, we developed a simple evaluation test and scores based on observations. The first reactions of 224 adult horses to the presence of an experimenter were observed and scored. All these horses belonged to the same riding school, had...
A Delphi study to determine expert consensus on the behavioural indicators of stress in horses undergoing veterinary care
Contributor(s):: Pearson, Gemma, Waran, Natalie, Reardon, Richard J. M., Keen, John, Dwyer, Cathy
A note on the effects of forward and rear-facing orientations on movement of horses during transport
Contributor(s):: Toscano, M. J., Friend, T. H.
Several studies have attempted to determine the effects of orientation on a horse's ability to maintain balance during transportation. The results have often been contradictory because of differences in trailer design and lack of simultaneous comparisons. In this study, three replications of two...
A note on the use of behavioural modification to aid clipping ponies
Contributor(s):: Gough, M. R.
The aversion of 6 ponies to electric clippers used on their necks were recorded. The ponies were then subjected to the noise of clippers daily while being fed for 2 weeks. One group was subjected to the sight and noise of the clippers, the other group to a tape recording of the clipper noise in...
A novel approach to systematically compare behavioural patterns between and within groups of horses
Contributor(s):: Ellis, Andrea D., Stephenson, Melissa, Preece, Michaela, Harris, Pat
This study piloted a multiple aspect approach to assess differences or changes in equine behaviour, using physiological (heart rates – HR, salivary cortisol – SC) and behavioural measures in various routine (feed-time, riding, turning out) and test situations (novel situation tests NS: 2×...
A preliminary study of the effects of handling type on horses' emotional reactivity and the human-horse relationship
Contributor(s):: Fureix, C., Pages, M., Bon, R., Lassalle, J. M., Kuntz, P., Gonzalez, G.
A preliminary study of the relationship between discrimination reversal learning and performance tasks in yearling and 2-year-old horses
Contributor(s):: Sappington, B. K. F., McCall, C. A., Coleman, D. A., Kuhlers, D. L., Lishak, R. S.
Ten yearling and seven 2-year-old mares and geldings of Arabian (n=4), Quarter Horse (n=9), and Thoroughbred (n=4) breeding were given a two-choice discrimination task in which either a black or a white bucket contained a food reward for ten trials per day during 19 test days. The spatial...
A study of cortisol and beta-endorphin levels in stereotypic and normal Thoroughbreds
Contributor(s):: Pell, S. M., McGreevy, P. D.
Plasma and salivary cortisol levels were measured in stereotypic (n=46) and normal horses (n=46). No significant differences were found between the 2 groups of horses. The correlation between plasma and salivary cortisol concentrations of individual horses (n=66) was also examined. A significant...
Adolescents' Affective and Physiological Regulation Shape Negative Behavior During Challenging Equine Assisted Learning Activities
| Contributor(s):: Patricia Pendry, Alexa M. Carr, Jaymie L. Vandagriff
This study examined associations between adolescents’ (N = 59; M age = 11.63) diurnal and momentary activity of the Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) axis as marked by salivary cortisol, and affective and behavioral responses to their first, mounted equine assisted learning (EAL)...
Aggression and social spacing in light horse ( Equus caballus ) mares and foals
| Contributor(s):: Weeks, J. W., Crowell-Davis, S. L., Caudle, A. B., Heusner, G. L.
Aggression and social spacing were studied in 14 light horse mares and their foals living at pasture. Focal samples were collected on each mare-foal dyad for 6 to 10.5 h from 2 months of foal age until weaning at approximately 4 months of age. Observations on foals continued until approximately 6...
An experimental analysis of the effects of therapeutic horseback riding on the behavior of children with autism
| Contributor(s):: Jenkins, Sarah R., DiGennaro Reed, Florence D.
An objective measure of reactive behaviour in horses
| Contributor(s):: Noble, Glenys K., Blackshaw, Kathryn L., Cowling, Ann, Harris, Patricia A., Sillence, Martin N.
Several tests have been devised in an attempt to detect behaviour modification due to training, supplements or diet in horses. These tests rely on subjective observations in combination with physiological measures, such as heart rate (HR) and plasma cortisol concentrations, but these measures do...
An unexpected acoustic indicator of positive emotions in horses
out of 5 stars
| Contributor(s):: Mathilde Stomp, Maël Leroux, Marjorie Cellier, Séverine Henry, Alban Lemasson, Martine Hausberger
Indicators of positive emotions are still scarce and many proposed behavioural markers have proven ambiguous. Studies established a link between acoustic signals and emitter’s internal state, but few related to positive emotions and still fewer considered non-vocal sounds. One of them,...
Application of learning theory in horse rescues in England and Wales
| Contributor(s):: Preshaw, Liane, Kirton, Roxane, Randle, Hayley
In England and Wales the welfare of animals, including horses, is protected by the Animal Welfare Act 2006. Welfare agencies play a role in the investigation of equine welfare concerns and catching, containing, transporting and boarding (caring for) horses that have been rescued. Horses regularly...
Application of Qualitative Behavioural Assessment to horses during an endurance ride
| Contributor(s):: Fleming, Patricia A., Paisley, Cheree L., Barnes, Anne L., Wemelsfelder, Françoise
Endurance horses are considered subject to a unique set of training and competing pressures due to the long distances travelled. The health and welfare of these horses could be compromised if they have not been adequately trained or are pushed beyond their limits, and there are increasing...
Applied neurophysiology of the horse; implications for training, husbandry and welfare
| Contributor(s):: McBride, Sebastian D., Parker, Matthew O., Roberts, Kirsty, Hemmings, Andrew
Understanding the neural circuits underlying equine behaviour has the potential to help optimise strategies of husbandry and training. This review discusses two areas of neurophysiological research in a range of species and relates this information to the horse. The first discussion focuses on...
Assessing equine emotional state
| Contributor(s):: Hall, Carol, Randle, Hayley, Pearson, Gemma, Preshaw, Liane, Waran, Natalie
The scientific study of animal emotion has recently become an important focus for animal behaviour and welfare researchers. For horses used by humans for work, recreation or sport, the question of the significance of their life experiences in terms of their emotional response, is an important one...
Assessing the rider's seat and horse's behavior: difficulties and perspectives. (Special Issue: Equitation science.)
| Contributor(s):: Blokhuis, M. Z., Aronsson, A., Hartmann, E., Reenen, C. G. van, Keeling, L.
A correct seat and position are the basis for a good performance in horseback riding. This study aimed to measure deviations from the correct seat, test a seat improvement program (dismounted exercises), and investigate whether horse behaviour was affected by the rider's seat. Five experienced...
Assessment of equine temperament by a questionnaire survey to caretakers and evaluation of its reliability by simultaneous behavior test
| Contributor(s):: Momozawa, Y., Ono, T., Sato, F., Kikusui, T., Takeuchi, Y., Mori, Y., Kusunose, R.
We carried out a questionnaire survey of the caretakers, using 86 riding horses kept in the Equestrian Park, Tokyo (Japan Racing Association). The questionnaire survey used a 5-point scale and a 3-point scale to assess several caretakers' impressions of each horse's temperament, on the basis of...
Behavioral and Physiological Differences between Working Horses and Chilean Rodeo Horses in a Handling Test
| Contributor(s):: Paula Rosselot, Tiago Mendonça, Igor González, Tamara Tadich
Non-invasive measures are preferred when assessing animal welfare. Differences in behavioral and physiological responses toward a stressor could be the result of the selection of horses for specific uses. Behavioral and physiological responses of working and Chilean rodeo horses subjected to a...