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  1. Social Behavior of Adult Male New Zealand White Rabbits Housed in Groups or Pairs in the Laboratory

    Contributor(s):: Jr, Louis DiVincenti, Rehrig, Angelika

    Rabbits are usually singly housed in laboratories, but a new emphasis on providing social housing for social species has prompted exploration of alternative housing for this species. However, a paucity of literature on the social behavior of rabbits in captivity has prevented scientific-based...

  2. Single- or Pair-Housed: Which Is Better for Captive Southern Tamanduas?

    Contributor(s):: Catapani, Mariana Labão, Pires, José Salatiel Rodrigues, Vasconcellos, Angélica da Silva

    The captive environment can limit some important behavioral options for nonhuman animals, which often results in decreased welfare. The companion of a conspecific can be a source of complexity in captivity, but this aspect has received little attention for solitary species. This study...

  3. Effects of Metabolic Cage Housing on Rat Behavior and Performance in the Social Interaction Test

    Contributor(s):: Whittaker, Alexandra L., Lymn, Kerry A., Howarth, Gordon S.

    Although the metabolic cage is commonly used for housing nonhuman animals in the laboratory, it has been recognized as constituting a unique stressor. Such an environment would be expected to affect behavioral change in animals housed therein. However, few studies have specifically addressed the...

  4. Will a hiding box provide stress reduction for shelter cats?

    Contributor(s):: Vinke, C. M., Godijn, L. M., van der Leij, W. J. R.

    Domestic cats (Felis sylvestris catus) can experience serious stress in shelters. Stressful experiences can have a major impact on the cats’ welfare and may cause higher incidences of infectious diseases in the shelters due to raised cortisol levels causing immunodeficiency. Though several...

  5. Stress, the HPA axis, and nonhuman primate well-being: A review

    Contributor(s):: Novak, Melinda A., Hamel, Amanda F., Kelly, Brian J., Dettmer, Amanda M., Meyer, Jerrold S.

    Numerous stressors are routinely encountered by wild-living primates (e.g., food scarcity, predation, aggressive interactions, and parasitism). Although many of these stressors are eliminated in laboratory environments, other stressors may be present in that access to space and social partners is...

  6. Rearing substrate and space allowance influences locomotor play behaviour of dairy calves in an arena test

    Contributor(s):: Sutherland, Mhairi A., Worth, Gemma M., Schütz, Karin E., Stewart, Mairi

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rearing substrate and space allowance in the home environment on the motivation of dairy calves to perform locomotor play in an arena test. At 1wk of age, 72 calves were moved into one of 18 experimental pens (n=4 calves/pen) where they...

  7. Environmental factors that affect the behavior and welfare of domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) housed in cages

    Contributor(s):: Stella, Judi, Croney, Candace, Buffington, Tony

    Understanding environmental factors that affect the behavior of cats in cages is important if caretakers are to improve the welfare of confined cats. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the macro (room) and micro (cage) environments on cat behavior and their implications for cat...

  8. Effects of two substrate types on the behaviour, cleanliness and thermoregulation of dairy calves

    Contributor(s):: Sutherland, Mhairi A., Stewart, Mairi, Schütz, Karin E.

    The use of river stones as a substrate to rear calves on is a management practice that is becoming more common in parts of New Zealand where more traditional substrate types, such as sawdust, can be difficult and/or expensive to obtain. A study was conducted to compare the behaviour, cleanliness,...

  9. Effect of captivity and management on behaviour of the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo)

    Contributor(s):: Talbot, Sarah, Freire, Rafael, Wassens, Skye

    The domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo) is becoming an increasingly popular companion animal in Australia and overseas yet very little is currently known about the effects of different management factors (such as housing and enrichment) on domestic ferret behaviour and welfare. Hence, the...

  10. Does the presence of a human affect the preference of enrichment items in young, isolated pigs?

    Contributor(s):: DeBoer, Shelly P., Garner, Joseph P., Lay, Donald C., Eicher, Susan D., Lucas, Jeffrey R., Marchant-Forde, Jeremy N.

    Pigs may be housed individually in both production and research settings. Gregarious by nature, pigs kept in isolation may show behavioural and physiological signs of stress. In this study we investigated the preference of individually housed pigs, for social and non-social enrichments. Three...

  11. Critical care and survival of fragile animals: The case of Prrxl1 knockout mice

    Contributor(s):: Monteiro, Clara, Dourado, Margarida, Matos, Mariana, Duarte, Isabel, Lamas, Sofia, Galhardo, Vasco, Lima, Deolinda

    The generation of genetically modified animal models in which a given gene is permanently deleted or overexpressed, sometimes results in fragile phenotypes characterized by high morbidity and premature death. This undesired outcome creates important welfare difficulties and poses a huge...

  12. The welfare of ferrets (Mustela putorius furo T): A review on the housing and management of pet ferrets

    Contributor(s):: Vinke, Claudia M., Schoemaker, Nico J.

    Ferrets are very agile and lively animals, and their behavioural needs are not easily met in housing conditions like our living rooms. Nevertheless, ferrets are increasingly popular as pets. The present paper aims to review and discuss the available knowledge on our pet ferret. Topics are...

  13. Preference of dairy cows: Indoor cubicle housing with access to a total mixed ration vs. access to pasture

    Contributor(s):: Charlton, Gemma L., Rutter, Steven Mark, East, Martyn, Sinclair, Liam A.

    Cattle are grazing animals so it is generally assumed that pasture is a welfare friendly system as it is natural and allows the expression of normal behaviour, which may be restricted indoors. However, high yielding dairy cows may not be able to fulfil their nutritional demands from grass alone...

  14. Motivation for social contact in horses measured by operant conditioning

    Contributor(s):: Søndergaard, Eva, Jensen, Margit Bak, Nicol, Christine J.

    Although horses are social animals they are often housed individually with limited social contact to other horses and this may compromise their welfare. The present study included eight young female horses and investigated the strength of motivation for access to full social contact, head contact...

  15. Keeping horses in groups: A review

    Contributor(s):: Hartmann, Elke, Søndergaard, Eva, Keeling, Linda J.

    Although husbandry conditions for horses have improved over the last decades, many horses are still kept singly with limited or no physical contact to other horses. This is surprising, given the fact that keeping horses in groups is recognised best to fulfil their physical and behavioural needs,...

  16. Housing systems to meet the behavioural needs of a solitary mammal with an extensive home range: The Julia Creek dunnart (Sminthopsis douglasi)

    Contributor(s):: Phillips, C. J. C., Davies, E., Lisle, A.

    The Julia Creek dunnart is a rare solitary marsupial that displays regular stereotyped pacing in captivity. An effective captive breeding programme has been hindered by the lack of an efficient housing system. An initial experiment examined the feasibility of housing in pairs, by mixing animals...

  17. Environmental enrichment induces optimistic cognitive biases in pigs

    Contributor(s):: Douglas, Catherine, Bateson, Melissa, Walsh, Clare, Bédué, Anaïs, Edwards, Sandra A.

    The objective assessment of affective (emotional) state in farm livestock, especially positive states, poses a significant challenge. In human psychology, there is evidence that affective state can alter cognition, with more positive states being associated with an increased likelihood of judging...

  18. Enrichment for captive tigers (Panthera tigris): Current knowledge and future directions

    Contributor(s):: Szokalski, Monika S., Litchfield, Carla A., Foster, Wendy K.

    Environmental enrichment is a common approach for addressing stereotypic behaviour in captive animals. Like many big cats, tigers (Panthera tigris) are renowned for their stereotypic pacing, yet relatively little is known about optimal enrichment for this species. Given the large proportion of...

  19. Effect of marginal environmental and social enrichment during rearing on pigs’ reactions to novelty, conspecifics and handling

    Contributor(s):: Tönepöhl, Björn, Appel, Anne K., Welp, Stephan, Voß, Barbara, König von Borstel, Uta, Gauly, Matthias

    The rearing environment of farmed animals can affect their behaviour when handled, and therefore needs to be taken into account when selecting for traits such as docility. Therefore, 126 German Landrace and Pietrain×German Landrace pigs were reared in two different production environments (barren...

  20. Comparing the relative benefits of grooming-contact and full-contact pairing for laboratory-housed adult female Macaca fascicularis

    Contributor(s):: Lee, Grace H., Thom, Jinhee P., Chu, Katherine L., Crockett, Carolyn M.

    Tactile social contact is the most effective form of environmental enrichment for promoting normal behavior in captive primates. For laboratory macaques housed indoors, pair housing is the most common method for socialization. Pairs can be housed either in full contact (FC), or in protected...