A multiple free choice model for pigs
Contributor(s):: Mwanjali, S., Smidt, D., Ellendorff, F.
A model which takes into consideration previous criticism of multiple free choice systems is proposed. A hexagonal housing system was constructed with 6 identical cubicles, which allowed elimination of all variables except the 1 to be investigated. Barriers could be introduced at the entrance to...
Agonistic and mating behavior of adult chickens modified by social and physical environments
Contributor(s):: Craig, J. V., Bhagwat, A. L.
Agonistic and mating behaviour in 48 flocks of adult White Leghorn fowls was observed for 8 wk. A factorial experimental design allowed evaluation of behaviour as affected by genetic strain, presence or absence of males , age group (initial ages of 32 or 48 wk), and less crowded floor pens...
Behavioral responses to short-term social isolation in sheep and goats
Contributor(s):: Price, E. O., Thos, J.
Temporary isolation from social partners under modern husbandry practices is often accompanied by psychological distress. The effects of short-term social isolation were studied in forty ten-week-old domestic sheep and goats reared in intra- and inter-specific pairs. Goats bleated and reared...
Effects of male presence on agonistic behavior and productivity of White Leghorn hens
Contributor(s):: Bhagwat, A. L., Craig, J. V.
Three experiments were performed, involving 18, 16 and 48 flocks with 9-16 females and 0-4 males per flock. The White Leghorn strains used had been selected either for egg mass or age at sexual maturity, or were unselected. Age at 50% egg production, rate of lay, survival rate, egg weight, egg...
Factors affecting lying behaviour and stall utilization of dairy cattle
Contributor(s):: Arave, C. W., Walters, J. L.
Stall usage under relatively uncrowded conditions by 59 dry Holstein cows and 18 heifers in late pregnancy were evaluated during 24-h periods. Left laterality (lying down on the left side) was observed 74.7 plus or minus 1.1% of the time for cows and 61.8 plus or minus 2.7% of the time for...
Fearful behavior by caged hens of two genetic stocks
Contributor(s):: Craig, J. V., Craig, T. P., Dayton, A. D.
Two White Leghorn strains which had both been selected for increased part-year egg mass but differed significantly from each other in agonistic behaviour, and sire families within each strain, were compared for nervousness scores and for latencies to feed and to return to normal activity after...
Observations on the nursing behaviour of beef cows suckling Charolais cross calves
Contributor(s):: Somerville, S. H., Lowman, B. G.
Three separate 48 h observations were made of the suckling behaviour of (1) Hereford X Friesian cows under grazing conditions, (2) Blue Grey cows under grazing conditions, and (3) Blue Grey cows housed. All the cows suckled Charolais cross calves. The mean suckling frequencies recorded were 5.5,...
Relationship between production factors and dominance in White Leghorn hens in a study on social rank and cage design
Contributor(s):: Cunningham, D. L., Tienhoven, A. van
The effects of social rank and cage shape on feeding frequency, weight gain, production rate, egg size, shell strength and overt aggressive activity were determined for layers housed 6 per cage in deep and shallow cages. Social rank significantly affected feeding frequency, production rate, egg...
The influence of social interactions upon the performance of laying hens in battery cages
Contributor(s):: Hughes, B. O., Black, A. J.
The importance of social interaction and dominance relationships in influencing egg production in battery cages was assessed. A light and a medium hybrid (Shaver 288 and Thornber 909) were housed as single birds, as pairs of the same strain or as mixed pairs. The light hybrid was more aggressive...
A note on the influence of visual conspecific contact on the behaviour of sheltered dogs
Contributor(s):: Wells, D. L., Hepper, P. G.
The effects of visual contact with other dogs on the behaviour of dogs housed in a rescue shelter were examined. 407 dogs were studied: 212 dogs were housed in cages that allowed for visual contact with dogs in opposite pens; 195 dogs were deprived of visual contact with other dogs by being...
A sequential analysis of eliminative behaviour in domestic pigs
Contributor(s):: Wechsler, B., Bachmann, I.
Knowledge of eliminative behaviour in pigs is of much importance for the design of housing systems in order to minimise soiling of the lying area. 53 piglets, 136 fatteners, 272 finishers and 277 sows were observed as focal animals at regularly used dunging areas in a highly structured housing...
An ethological approach to housing requirements of golden hamsters, Mongolian gerbils and fat sand rats in the laboratory - a review
Contributor(s):: Sorensen, D. B., Krohn, T., Hansen, H. N., Ottesen, J. L., Hansen, A. K.
When housing hamsters and gerbils little has been done to identify the preferences of these species. The solitary nature of fat sand rats and hamsters is often discordant with housing practices in animal laboratories. This article provides a comparison of the behaviour of wild-living animals with...
Behaviour and distribution of fattening pigs in the multi-activity pen
Contributor(s):: Simonsen, H. B.
Five groups of fattening pigs were observed in an experimental multi-activity pen with environmental enrichment. The pen measuring 36 msuperscript 2 included sections containing straw, feed and water connected by two corridors. In addition the pigs had access to straw racks, a shower and...
Behaviour and production of laying hens in three prototypes of cages incorporating nests
Contributor(s):: Sherwin, C. M., Nicol, C. J.
Laying hens were housed in groups of 4 in 3 prototypes of cage, each incorporating 4 roll-away nest hollows. Observation on behaviour and production were conducted for 111 days. The hens consistently laid eggs in the nests despite their rudimentary design. The choice of nest for oviposition was...
Behaviour of fattening pigs in a labyrinth pen with environmental variation
Contributor(s):: Simonsen, H. B., Agger, J. F.
Social interactions and the use of feeders, water nipples and a shower were recorded for 8 pigs in an experimental pen. The incidence rate of the total number of social interactions was highest (3.55 per 15 pig-minutes) in the water supply section and lowest in the straw section (1.97 per 15...
Behavioural reaction of individual pigs raised in different environments to a novel object and to handling at slaughter in relation to measurements of the adrenal cortex
Contributor(s):: Rasmussen, A. A.
Development of tongue-playing in artificially reared calves: effects of offering a dummy-teat, feeding of short cut hay and housing system
Contributor(s):: Seo, T., Sato, S., Kosaka, K., Sakamoto, N., Tokumoto, K., Katoh, K.
16 artificially reared Japanese Black calves were divided into 6 groups: offered a dummy teat or not; given short or long cut hay; and housed individually or in a group. Grooming as common displacement behaviour and physiological stress indicators such as plasma ACTH and cortisol concentration...
Effect of feed and environmental enrichment on development of stereotypic wire-gnawing in laboratory mice
Contributor(s):: Wurbel, H., Chapman, R., Rutland, C.
At 21 days of age, 16 pairs of male ICR laboratory mice were weaned and allocated to 4 treatment groups in a 2 x 2 factorial design matched for genetic background (litter) and body weight. Factor one was the hardness of feed pellets with a significant 2.5-fold difference between soft and hard...
Effect of housing on in situ postures of gestating gilts
Contributor(s):: Taylor, L., Friend, T., Smith, L. A.
Behaviour of gilts housed in tethered housing, crates, loose housing or dirtlot was video-recorded for 48-h observation periods commencing on days 0, 7 and 63. Lying was the most frequent activity, ranging from 65 to 90
Effects of cage-front design on the feeding behaviour of laying hens
Contributor(s):: Sherwin, C. M., Alvey, D. M., Williamson, J. D.
The effects on feeding behaviour of 4 cage-front designs: vertical bars, horizontal bars, feed trough raised 33 cm, and feed trough enclosed within the cage, were examined. Cage-front design had no significant effect on mean feeding-bout duration (range of 69-85 seconds) or proportion of time...