Conditioned place preference or aversion as animal welfare assessment tools: Limitations in their application
Contributor(s):: Dixon, Laura M., Sandilands, Vicky, Bateson, Melissa, Brocklehurst, Sarah, Tolkamp, Bert J., D’Eath, Rick B.
Conditioned place preference (CPP) or aversion (CPA) methods are potentially useful tools in animal welfare assessment because they permit measurement of the reinforcing properties of a stimulus in the absence of the stimulus itself. We used CPP/CPA techniques in a series of experiments to assess...
Measurement of feeding motivation in sheep and the effects of food restriction
Contributor(s):: Verbeek, Else, Waas, Joseph R., McLeay, Lance, Matthews, Lindsay R.
The availability of food is a crucial factor determining the health and growth of animals. Prolonged or severe food restriction will trigger the subjective state of hunger, which could potentially reduce welfare. We refined a methodology for the measurement of feeding motivation as an indicator...
Cross-sucking by dairy calves may become a habit or reflect characteristics of individual calves more than milk allowance or weaning
Contributor(s):: de Passillé, Anne Marie, Borderas, Fernando, Rushen, Jeffrey
To examine the effects of milk allowance and weaning age on cross-sucking, 45 dairy calves were housed in groups of nine and fed milk and grain-based starter feed from automated feeders and allocated to three treatment groups: (A) Low-Milk Early-Weaned (fed 6L/d of milk until weaned at 47 d of...
Assessing the effect of rate and extent of starch digestion in broiler and laying hen feeding behaviour
Contributor(s):: Herwig, Eugenia, Classen, Henry L., Schwean-Lardner, Karen V.
Feeding behaviour can be affected by diet composition as a result of diet density, the rate and extent of ingredient digestion and the activation of nutrient sensing mechanisms. It was hypothezised that the presence of starch in the distal small intestine would activate the ileal brake, thereby...
Do dietary and milking frequency changes during a gradual dry-off affect feed-related attention bias and visual lateralisation in dairy cows?
Contributor(s):: Franchi, Guilherme Amorim, Herskin, Mette S., Jensen, Margit Bak
A widespread management practice in commercial dairy farms is to stop milk production artificially commonly 2 months before expected calving, in a process termed drying-off. Dry-off management normally encompasses dietary changes as well as abrupt or gradual changes in daily milking frequency,...
Hunger in pregnant sows: effects of a fibrous diet and free access to straw
Contributor(s):: Jensen, M. B., Pedersen, L. J., Theil, P. K., Knudsen, K. E. B.
Fibrous diets and the provision of straw have been suggested to reduce feeding motivation in pregnant sows. The present experiment investigated the separate and interactive effects of a fibrous diet and ad libitum access to straw on feeding motivation, oral behaviour and plasma levels of...
Slow and steady wins the race? No signs of reduced welfare in smaller broiler breeder hens at four weeks of age
Contributor(s):: Lindholm, C., Calais, A., Jonsson, J., Yngwe, N., Berndtson, E., Hult, E., Altimiras, J.
Broiler breeder chickens are commonly reared under strict feed-restriction regimes to reduce obesity-induced health and fertility problems during adult life, and are assumed to experience a reduced welfare due to the resulting hunger. In these conditions, feed competition could influence the...
Effects of different dietary protein levels during rearing and different dietary energy levels during lay on behaviour and feather cover in broiler breeder females
Contributor(s):: Emous, R. A. van, Kwakkel, R., Krimpen, M. van, Hendriks, W.
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different dietary protein levels during rearing and different dietary energy levels during lay on behaviour and feather cover in broiler breeder females. A 2*3*2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used. A total of 2880 Ross 308...
Effect of feed allowance at pasture on lying behaviour and locomotory ability of dairy cows
Contributor(s):: O'Driscoll, K., Lewis, E., Kennedy, E.
In temperate climates where cows are primarily managed at pasture shortages of grass could result in nutritional deficits for the cow and thus pose a challenge to her welfare. This study investigated the effect of daily herbage allowance (DHA) on dairy cow lying behaviour, locomotory ability, and...
Feed-restricted broiler breeders: state-dependent learning as a novel welfare assessment tool to evaluate their hunger state?
Contributor(s):: Buckley, L. A., Sandilands, V., Hocking, P. M., Tolkamp, B. J., D'Eath, R. B.
This paper reports three experiments that aimed to validate the use of state-dependent learning (SDL) as a novel welfare assessment tool to evaluate the hunger state of feed-restricted broiler breeders. In each experiment, birds alternated every 2 days between two food rations: quantitative feed...
The effect of physical contact between dairy cows and calves during separation on their post-separation behavioural response
Contributor(s):: Johnsen, J. F., Ellingsen, K., Grondahl, A. M., Boe, K. E., Lidfors, L., Mejdell, C. M.
Premature breaking of the maternal bond between a cow and her calf triggers a strong behavioural response which renders separation and weaning major welfare challenges in suckling systems. Fence-line separation and weaning allowing physical contact has been evaluated for beef cattle and is...
Measuring motivation in swine: the food-metric scale
Contributor(s):: Patterson-Kane, E. G., Kirkden, R. D., Pajor, E. A.
Understanding how nonhuman animals such as swine respond to their environment and understanding how to provide them with a good quality of life involves using a range of experimental approaches. More and more, ethological researchers are turning to operant methods to answer some of these...
Attitudes of Canadian beef producers toward animal welfare
Contributor(s):: Spooner, J. M., Schuppli, C. A., Fraser, D.
Does diversionary feeding create nuisance bears and jeopardize public safety?
Contributor(s):: Rogers, L. L.
Measuring the success of a farm animal welfare education event
Contributor(s):: Jamieson, J., Reiss, M. J., Allen, D., Asher, L., Wathes, C. M., Abeyesinghe, S. M.
Agricultural development and associated environmental and ethical issues in South Asia
Contributor(s):: Khan, M. A., Shah, S. A. A.
South Asia is one of the most densely populated regions of the world, where despite a slow growth, agriculture remains the backbone of rural economy as it employs one half to over 90 percent of the labor force. Both extensive and intensive policy measures for agriculture development to feed the...
Exposing violences: using women's human rights theory to reconceptualize food rights
Contributor(s):: Bellows, A. C.
Exposing food violences (hunger, malnutrition, and poisoning from environmental mismanagement) requires policy action that confronts the structured invisibility of these violences. Along with the hidden deprivation of food is the physical and political isolation of critical knowledge on food...
Intake rate during meals and meal duration for sheep in different hunger states, grazing grass or white clover swards
Contributor(s):: Orr, R. J., Penning, P. D., Rutter, S. M., Champion, R. A., Harvey, A., Rook, A. J.
Meal patterns and rates of feed intake by grazing herbivores may be markedly different from those found in housed ruminants and monogastrics. Cumulative intakes over the evening meal (satiety curves) were measured using groups of sheep (Ovis aries) grazing monocultures of white clover (Trifolium...
Temporal distribution of sucking behaviour in dairy calves and influence of energy balance
Contributor(s):: Roth, B. A., Keil, N. M., Gygax, L., Hillmann, E.
So far, most authors in the literature have suggested that cross-sucking in dairy calves is elicited by milk ingestion, as sucking motivation persists for an additional 12-15 min after milk intake. However, cross-sucking without temporal association to milk ingestion has also been noted in...
The validity of using an approach-avoidance test to measure the strength of aversion to carbon dioxide in rats
Contributor(s):: Kirkden, R. D., Niel, L., Lee, G., Makowska, I. J., Pfaffinger, M. J., Weary, D. M.
Approach-avoidance tests are often used to estimate the strength of aversion, by making food rewards available during exposure to a stimulus at a known level of food deprivation. It is reasoned that if subjects are unwilling to tolerate the stimulus even when severely food deprived, their...