A behavioural comparison of New Zealand White rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ) housed individually or in pairs in conventional laboratory cages
Contributor(s):: Chu, L. R., Garner, J. P., Mench, J. A.
Despite their gregarious nature, rabbits used for research are often housed individually due to concerns about aggression and disease transmission. However, conventional laboratory cages restrict movement, and rabbits housed singly in these cages often perform abnormal behaviours, an indication...
A comparison of social and environmental enrichment methods for laboratory housed dogs
Contributor(s):: Hubrecht, R. C.
48 Beagles in 4 equal groups: (controls; opportunities for social contacts with conspecifics; given 30 s/day of intensive handling; and provided with 3 different toys/chews permanently suspended in the pen (Rawhide, Gumabone chew and a piece of plastic tubing)) were observed for a total of 432 h....
A comparison of the effects of simple versus complex environmental enrichment on the behaviour of group-housed, subadult rhesus macaques
Contributor(s):: Schapiro, S. J., Bloomsmith, M. A., Suarez, S. A., Porter, L. M.
A modified HET-CAM approach for biocompatibility testing of medical devices
Contributor(s):: Eder, C., Falkner, E., Mickel, M., Chiari-Grisar, C., Appl, H., Schoffl, H., Nehrer, S., Losert, U. M.
The implantation of new biomedical devices into living animals without any previous toxicity or biocompatibility evaluation is possible under current legislation. The HET-CAM (Hen Egg Test-Chorionallantoic Membrane) test offers a partially immunodeficient, borderline in vitro/in vivo test system...
A note on enrichment for spontaneous tool use by chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes )
Contributor(s):: Morimura, N.
In the wild, decisions as to "when", "where", and "how" an animal acts are made based on the individual's own choice; in contrast, the behaviour of wild animals in captivity may be under human control. To improve the physical and psychological well-being of captive animals, we should ensure that...
A study of three IACUCs and their views of scientific merit and alternatives
Contributor(s):: Graham, K.
Two ethical issues facing Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs) today are assessing scientific merit and the use of alternatives in research proposals. This study evaluated 3 IACUCs using a 19-question survey, with a 77.8% response rate. Although 76% of members answered that...
A tail of two monkeys: social housing for nonhuman primates in the research laboratory setting
Contributor(s):: Seelig, D.
Despite great adaptability, most nonhuman primates require regular tactile contact with conspecifics for their psychological well being. By illustrating the inherent value of social contact and by providing clues to the best ways of satisfying this need, behavioral studies are useful in designing...
A targeted approach to developing environmental enrichment for two strains of laboratory mice
Contributor(s):: Nicol, C. J., Brocklebank, S., Mendl, M., Sherwin, C. M.
Previous studies on environmental enrichment have generally placed a purported enrichment in the cage and observed changes in behavioural and physiological indicators of welfare. However, many of these 'enrichments' are not purposely designed, or appear to be designed with anthropomorphic or...
Acknowledging animals: a memorial service for teaching and research animals
Contributor(s):: Taylor, A., Davis, H.
A campus-wide memorial service was held to acknowledge the contribution of animals to excellence in research and teaching at the University of Guelph. The conception, rationale behind, and execution of this project are described, including the actual text of the service, as a model for other...
Acute effects of cage cleaning at different frequencies on laboratory rat behaviour and welfare
Contributor(s):: Burn, C. C., Peters, A., Mason, G. J.
Allowing captive marmosets to choose the size and position of their nest box
Contributor(s):: Hosey, G. R., Jacques, M., Burton, M.
Preferences for nest box size and position were tested in two groups of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus jacchus). One group consisted of a mother, her two adult sons and one adult daughter, and the other comprised a breeding pair, their two adult sons and two adult daughters. In a pre-test...
Amelioration of laboratory conditions for pigeons ( Columbia livia )
Contributor(s):: Huber, L.
An ethological approach to housing requirements of golden hamsters, Mongolian gerbils and fat sand rats in the laboratory - a review
Contributor(s):: Sorensen, D. B., Krohn, T., Hansen, H. N., Ottesen, J. L., Hansen, A. K.
When housing hamsters and gerbils little has been done to identify the preferences of these species. The solitary nature of fat sand rats and hamsters is often discordant with housing practices in animal laboratories. This article provides a comparison of the behaviour of wild-living animals with...
An illustration that statistical design mitigates environmental variation and ensures unambiguous study conclusions
Contributor(s):: Gore, K. H., Stanley, P. J.
This paper highlights the essential need for appropriate statistical design and randomisation in laboratory animal studies. Using an example of a 21 day weight gain study in mice, we show that without the use of an appropriate statistical design and randomisation, incorrect conclusions may have...
Animal ethics and toxicology
Contributor(s):: Rollin, B. E.
Animal experimentation in cancer research: a citation analysis
Contributor(s):: Dagg, A. I.
Cancer research involves the use of millions of nonhuman animals and billions of dollars in public funds each year, but cures for the disease remain elusive. This article suggests ways to reduce the use of animals and save money by identifying articles that garnered few citations over the 9 years...
Animal welfare in programs of zootherapy or therapy attended by animals
Contributor(s):: Silva, M. R. da, Martins, M. de F., Gouvea, A. H., Pinheiro, J. de V., Santos, T. R. dos, Lee, J. Y., Lins, L. B., Greghi, G. F.
Zootherapy or Therapy Attended by Animals are denominations for different types of assistances human beings, where the animals are used as co-therapeutic in the learning of children and adolescents with or without cognitive deficits, aged institutionalized or not, chemical dependents, alcoholics...
Antimony: The Use, Rights, and Regulation of Laboratory Animals
Contributor(s):: Brenda L. Thomas
'In recent years, the problem, plight, and philosophy behind the use of animals in laboratories, schools, and industries has caused many to formulate an opinion on animal experimentation. It is simple to postulate a Monday morning quarterback philosophy - merely weigh the...
Artificial weaning of Old World monkeys: benefits and costs
Contributor(s):: Reinhardt, V.
Permanent mother-infant separation prior to natural weaning is a common husbandry practice in monkey breeding colonies. In the United States, all eight Regional Primate Research Centres have such colonies. Under undisturbed conditions, Old World monkey mothers wean their infants at the age of...
Assessing pain, suffering and distress in laboratory animals: an RSPCA survey of current practice in the UK
Contributor(s):: Hawkins, P.
A survey was undertaken to evaluate how animal discomfort, pain, suffering and distress are recognized and assessed in UK scientific procedure establishments. In total, 28 establishments were visited between 1999 and 2001 and 137 people participated, including animal technicians, veterinarians...