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  1. Overcoming the barriers to the retirement of Old and New World monkeys from research facilities

    Contributor(s):: Kerwin, A. M.

    In this commentary I aim to raise awareness among researchers and sanctuary directors to potential barriers to retiring Old and New World monkeys from research facilities. I define a barrier as an opinion or stereotype that prevents primate retirement from occurring on a regular basis. By...

  2. The poor contribution of chimpanzee experiments to biomedical progress

    Contributor(s):: Knight, A.

    Biomedical research on captive chimpanzees incurs substantial nonhuman animal welfare, ethical, and financial costs that advocates claim result in substantial advancements in biomedical knowledge. However, demonstrating minimal contribution toward the advancement of biomedical knowledge...

  3. Primate behavior studies: essential to primate welfare. Proceedings of the special Animal Behavior Society session, 2006

    Contributor(s):: Koch, V. W.

    This special issue contains 8 papers and 3 commentaries on the association between understanding nonhuman primate behaviour and providing for nonhuman primate welfare. The topics of the papers include: welfare of apes in captive environments; social housing for nonhuman primates in the research...

  4. The influence of the location of a nest box in an individually ventilated cage on the preference of mice to use it

    Contributor(s):: Kostomitsopoulos, N. G., Paronis, E., Alexakos, P., Balafas, E., Loo, P. van, Baumans, V.

    The improvement of housing conditions for mice by using environmental enrichment materials is of high concern for the scientific community. Plastic, autoclavable nest boxes are commercially available and ready to use for specific cases such as in individually ventilated cages, metabolic cages, or...

  5. The use of positive reinforcement training techniques to enhance the care, management, and welfare of primates in the laboratory. (Training Nonhuman Primates Using Positive Reinforcement Techniques)

    Contributor(s):: Laule, G. E., Bloomsmith, M. A., Schapiro, S. J.

    Handled frequently and subjected to a wide range of medical procedures that may be particularly invasive, nonhuman animals in a laboratory setting have unique needs. To produce the most reliable research results and to protect and enhance the well-being of the animals, it is desirable to perform...

  6. The development of a novel form of mouse cage enrichment

    Contributor(s):: Leach, M. C., Ambrose, N., Bowell, V. J., Morton, D. B.

    This article describes the design and testing of a novel form of mouse cage enrichment. A cage insert was designed and developed to fulfill a number of enrichment goals pertaining to its effectiveness and practicality (i.e., to improve the environment of mice in laboratories while causing the...

  7. Training common marmosets ( Callithrix jacchus ) to cooperate during routine laboratory procedures: ease of training and time investment. (Training Nonhuman Primates Using Positive Reinforcement Techniques)

    Contributor(s):: McKinley, J., Buchanan-Smith, H. M., Bassett, L., Morris, K.

    The first author trained 12 laboratory-housed common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) in pairs to assess the practicality of positive reinforcement training as a technique in the management of these nonhuman animals. Behaviours taught were target training to allow homecage weighing and providing...

  8. Urinary corticosterone levels in mice in response to intraperitoneal injections with saline

    Contributor(s):: Meijer, M. K., Lemmens, A. G., Zutphen, B. F. M. van, Baumans, V.

    The concept of refinement is an important issue in the field of laboratory animal science. Refinement-based research aims to improve animal welfare, to increase the reliability of experimental outcome, and to diminish variation. In search of refinement of experimental techniques, this study...

  9. Do male mice prefer or avoid each other's company? Influence of hierarchy, kinship, and familiarity

    Contributor(s):: Loo, P. L. P. van, Groot, A. C. de, Zutphen, B. F. M. van, Baumans, V.

    In the laboratory, individual housing of male mice who otherwise show aggression is common practice. Because mice are a social species, the question arises whether this procedure is right from the animals' point of view. This study tested the preference of subordinate animals for their dominant...

  10. Cage size preference in rats in the laboratory

    Contributor(s):: Patterson-Kane, E. G.

    The size of an enclosure is an integral part of how well it accommodates a nonhuman animal's welfare; however, most enrichment studies concentrate on modifying the area inside the enclosure rather than enlarging it. It has been suggested that rats have little need for more cage space, but there...

  11. Bioacoustic monitoring of aggression in group-housed rhesus macaques

    Contributor(s):: McCowan, B., Rommeck, I.

    Many captive primate facilities house rhesus macaques in multimale-multifemale social groups in large enclosures that simulate the natural social and environmental features characteristic of the species, enhancing their reproductive performance as well as their psychological well-being, yet one...

  12. Noise exposure, music, and animals in the laboratory: a commentary based on Laboratory Animal Refinement and Enrichment Forum (LAREF) discussions

    Contributor(s):: Patterson-Kane, E. G., Farnworth, M. J.

    The effects of noise, in general, and music, in particular, on the behavior and welfare of animals in the laboratory deserve a great deal of empirical study. However, many laboratories must develop their current practices on the basis of sparse and conflicting data. With this commentary we seek...

  13. Phenotype characterization and welfare assessment of transgenic rodents (mice)

    Contributor(s):: Mertens, C., Rulicke, T.

    Methods of transgenesis in vertebrate animals in the laboratory involve the stable addition or selective substitution of defined genes into the germline. Although there is a continuous and remarkable development in transgenic technology-the quality of transgenes, gene-targeting vectors, and...

  14. Rat's demand for group size

    Contributor(s):: Patterson-Kane, E. P., Hunt, M., Harper, D.

    Social isolation compromises the welfare of rats. However, it is not clear how many rats should be housed together under laboratory conditions. Pair housing, sometimes recommended over group housing, may help avoid aggression and disease transmission. Female rats, however, showed the highest...

  15. Behavioral assessment of intermittent wheel running and individual housing in mice in the laboratory

    Contributor(s):: Pham, T. M., Brene, S., Baumans, V.

    Physical cage enrichment - exercise devices for rodents in the laboratory - often includes running wheels. This study compared responses of mice in enriched physical and social conditions and in standard social conditions to wheel running, individual housing, and open-field test. The study...

  16. Global harmonization of pain and distress classification systems: current analysis and opportunity for change

    Contributor(s):: Purves, K. E.

    When humans suffer pain or distress, they are generally able to describe their experience to others, including doctors. Medical professionals are also able to convey the likelihood of pain and distress to humans who are voluntarily participating in clinical research trials. The same is not true...

  17. The myth of the aggressive monkey

    Contributor(s):: Reinhardt, V.

    Captive rhesus macaques are not naturally aggressive, but poor husbandry and handling practices can trigger their aggression toward conspecifics and toward the human handler. The myth of the aggressive monkey probably is based on often not taking into account basic ethological principles when...

  18. Artificial weaning of Old World monkeys: benefits and costs

    Contributor(s):: Reinhardt, V.

    Permanent mother-infant separation prior to natural weaning is a common husbandry practice in monkey breeding colonies. In the United States, all eight Regional Primate Research Centres have such colonies. Under undisturbed conditions, Old World monkey mothers wean their infants at the age of...

  19. Working with rather than against macaques during blood collection. (Training Nonhuman Primates Using Positive Reinforcement Techniques)

    Contributor(s):: Reinhardt, V.

    Training macaques to cooperate during blood collection is a practicable and safe alternative to the traditional procedure implying forced restraint. It takes a cumulative total of about 1 hr to train an adult female or adult male rhesus macaque successfully to present a leg voluntarily and accept...

  20. Compassion for animals in the laboratory: impairment or refinement of research methodology?

    Contributor(s):: Reinhardt, V.

    There are now signs in the United States as well as in Europe that the importance of a positive human-nonhuman animal relationship in research laboratories is appreciated more seriously. In addition to knowledge and skills, primary attributes of animal research personnel must be feelings of...