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  1. Combination therapy reduces self-injurious behavior in a chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes troglodytes ): a case report

    Contributor(s):: Bourgeois, S. R., Vazquez, M., Brasky, K.

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) remains a severe and intractable abnormal behavior for nonhuman primates in diverse settings and is a significant concern for veterinarians and behavioral scientists. To date, no single pharmacological, behavioral, social, or environmental intervention method has...

  2. Compassion for animals in the laboratory: impairment or refinement of research methodology?

    Contributor(s):: Reinhardt, V.

    There are now signs in the United States as well as in Europe that the importance of a positive human-nonhuman animal relationship in research laboratories is appreciated more seriously. In addition to knowledge and skills, primary attributes of animal research personnel must be feelings of...

  3. Distribution of nonhuman animal versus nonanimal research funding at four U.S. Institutions in fiscal year 2000

    Contributor(s):: Bogle, R., Greek, R.

    Much controversy exists concerning the use of nonhuman animals in biomedical research. Textbooks, articles, and journals are dedicated to studying animal models, studying alternatives, and debating various aspects of the issue. Surprisingly however, very little information exists on how many...

  4. Do audible and ultrasonic sounds of intensities common in animal facilities affect the autonomic nervous system of rodents?

    Contributor(s):: Burwell, A. K., Baldwin, A. L.

    In animal facilities, noises, often poorly controlled, occur over a wide range of frequencies and intensities. Evidence demonstrates that audible noise and ultrasound have deleterious effects on rodent physiology, but it is not known how they affect the autonomic nervous system (ANS). This study...

  5. Do male mice prefer or avoid each other's company? Influence of hierarchy, kinship, and familiarity

    Contributor(s):: Loo, P. L. P. van, Groot, A. C. de, Zutphen, B. F. M. van, Baumans, V.

    In the laboratory, individual housing of male mice who otherwise show aggression is common practice. Because mice are a social species, the question arises whether this procedure is right from the animals' point of view. This study tested the preference of subordinate animals for their dominant...

  6. Effects of environmental enrichment for mice: variation in experimental results

    Contributor(s):: Weerd, H. A. van de, Aarsen, E. L., Mulder, A., Kruitwagen, C. L. J. J., Hendriksen, C. F. M., Baumans, V.

    This study focused on the effects of different enriched environments for mice in a number of behavioural and physiological parameters in 2 routine laboratory testing procedures: potency testing for tetanus vaccine and stress-induced hyperthermia. The variability in the results was studied by...

  7. Environmental enrichment alters the behavioral profile of ratsnakes ( Elaphe )

    Contributor(s):: Almli, L. M., Burghardt, G. M.

    This study investigated the effects of environmentally enriched and standard laboratory housing conditions on behavioral performance in 16 subadult ratsnakes (Elaphe obsoleta) using a split-clutch design. In a problem-solving task, snakes housed in enriched environments (EC) exhibited shorter...

  8. Flaws in federal regulations pertaining to the welfare of primates kept in research institutions

    Contributor(s):: Reinhardt, V.

    Federal welfare regulations for primates kept in research laboratories fail to (a) include recommendations pertaining to the legal requirement of the avoidance of stress and unnecessary discomfort during handling procedures, (b) specify how the legally required "uniform illumination" can be...

  9. Genetic engineering and other factors that might affect human-animal interactions in the research setting

    Contributor(s):: Comber, J., Griffin, G.

    Evidence exists, particularly in the welfare literature of nonhuman animals on the farm, that the interaction between nonhuman animals and the personnel who care for them can have a strong effect on the animals' behavior, productivity, and welfare. Among species commonly used for biomedical...

  10. Genetically modified laboratory animals - what welfare problems do they face?

    Contributor(s):: Buehr, M., Hjorth, P. J., Hansen, A. K., Sandoe, P.

    In this article, we respond to public concern expressed about the welfare of genetically modified (GM) non-human animals. As a contribution to the debate on this subject, we attempt in this article to determine in what situations the practice of genetic modification in rodents may generate...

  11. Global harmonization of pain and distress classification systems: current analysis and opportunity for change

    Contributor(s):: Purves, K. E.

    When humans suffer pain or distress, they are generally able to describe their experience to others, including doctors. Medical professionals are also able to convey the likelihood of pain and distress to humans who are voluntarily participating in clinical research trials. The same is not true...

  12. Legal loophole for subminimal floor area for caged macaques

    Contributor(s):: Reinhardt, V.

    Macaques are biologically adapted to an arboreal or semiarboreal lifestyle. They spend much or most of the day and all of the night in elevated locations well off the ground as a safeguard against predators including humans. When they are on the ground during an alarming situation, they...

  13. Legal space requirement stipulations for animals in the laboratory: are they adequate?

    Contributor(s):: Reinhardt, V., Reinhardt, A.

    Animals in the laboratory need the legally required "empty space" to meet their basic spatial requirements for postural adjustment, but they also deserve functional-structured-space for species-typical locomotor behavior and dynamic interaction with their physical environment. Primary enclosures...

  14. Levels of citation of nonhuman animal studies conducted at a Canadian Research hospital

    Contributor(s):: Dagg, A. I., Seidle, T. K.

    The publication of scientific articles that receive few or no citations raises questions of the appropriate use of resources as well as ethics. In the case of animal research, the ethics issue extends beyond human patients to nonhuman animals, as the research subjects them to pain and, typically,...

  15. Noise exposure, music, and animals in the laboratory: a commentary based on Laboratory Animal Refinement and Enrichment Forum (LAREF) discussions

    Contributor(s):: Patterson-Kane, E. G., Farnworth, M. J.

    The effects of noise, in general, and music, in particular, on the behavior and welfare of animals in the laboratory deserve a great deal of empirical study. However, many laboratories must develop their current practices on the basis of sparse and conflicting data. With this commentary we seek...

  16. Noncompliance with Public Health Service (PHS) policy on humane care and use of laboratory animals: an exploratory analysis

    Contributor(s):: Gomez, L. M., Conlee, K. M., Stephens, M. L.

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is a major biomedical research-funding body in the United States. Approximately 40% of NIH-funded research involves experimentation on nonhuman animals (Monastersky, 200811. Monastersky, R. 2008, April 18. Protesters fail to slow animal research. The...

  17. Outcome of cats adopted from a biomedical research program

    Contributor(s):: DiGangi, B. A., Crawford, P. C., Levy, J. K.

    Adoption of companion animals retired from biomedical research projects can provide an alternative, humane method for their disposition. For more than a decade, the University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine has allowed investigators to arrange for the adoption of nonhuman animals used...

  18. Overcoming the barriers to the retirement of Old and New World monkeys from research facilities

    Contributor(s):: Kerwin, A. M.

    In this commentary I aim to raise awareness among researchers and sanctuary directors to potential barriers to retiring Old and New World monkeys from research facilities. I define a barrier as an opinion or stereotype that prevents primate retirement from occurring on a regular basis. By...

  19. Phenotype characterization and welfare assessment of transgenic rodents (mice)

    Contributor(s):: Mertens, C., Rulicke, T.

    Methods of transgenesis in vertebrate animals in the laboratory involve the stable addition or selective substitution of defined genes into the germline. Although there is a continuous and remarkable development in transgenic technology-the quality of transgenes, gene-targeting vectors, and...

  20. Positive reinforcement training as a technique to alter nonhuman primate behavior: quantitative assessments of effectiveness. (Training Nonhuman Primates Using Positive Reinforcement Techniques)

    Contributor(s):: Schapiro, S. J., Bloomsmith, M. A., Laule, G. E.

    Many suggest that operant conditioning techniques can be applied successfully to improve the behavioral management of nonhuman primates in research settings. However, relatively little empirical data exist to support this claim. This article is a review of several studies that discussed applied...