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  1. Positive reinforcement training moderates only high levels of abnormal behavior in singly housed rhesus macaques

    Contributor(s):: Baker, K. C., Bloomsmith, M., Neu, K., Griffis, C., Maloney, M., Oettinger, B., Schoof, V. A. M., Martinez, M.

    This study evaluated the application of positive reinforcement training (PRT) as an intervention for abnormal behaviors in singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques at 2 large primate facilities. Training involved basic control behaviors and body-part presentation. The study compared baseline...

  2. Primate behavior studies: essential to primate welfare. Proceedings of the special Animal Behavior Society session, 2006

    Contributor(s):: Koch, V. W.

    This special issue contains 8 papers and 3 commentaries on the association between understanding nonhuman primate behaviour and providing for nonhuman primate welfare. The topics of the papers include: welfare of apes in captive environments; social housing for nonhuman primates in the research...

  3. Rat's demand for group size

    Contributor(s):: Patterson-Kane, E. P., Hunt, M., Harper, D.

    Social isolation compromises the welfare of rats. However, it is not clear how many rats should be housed together under laboratory conditions. Pair housing, sometimes recommended over group housing, may help avoid aggression and disease transmission. Female rats, however, showed the highest...

  4. Self-harm in laboratory-housed primates: where is the evidence that the Animal Welfare Act amendment has worked?

    Contributor(s):: Balcombe, J., Ferdowsian, H., Durham, D.

    The 1985 amendment to the United States Animal Welfare Act (AWA) to promote psychological well being of primates in the laboratory represents an acknowledgment of an important welfare problem concerning nonhuman animals. How effective has this amendment been? Perhaps the best-known contributor to...

  5. Severe intragroup aggressions in captive common marmosets ( Callithrix jacchus )

    Contributor(s):: Filippis, B. de, Chiarotti, F., Vitale, A.

    Members of captive colonies of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), a small New World primate, can occasionally be victims of repeated, and potentially fatal, attacks by a family-mate. This study examined the records of a colony, looking for past instances of such aggressions. The aim was to...

  6. The development of a novel form of mouse cage enrichment

    Contributor(s):: Leach, M. C., Ambrose, N., Bowell, V. J., Morton, D. B.

    This article describes the design and testing of a novel form of mouse cage enrichment. A cage insert was designed and developed to fulfill a number of enrichment goals pertaining to its effectiveness and practicality (i.e., to improve the environment of mice in laboratories while causing the...

  7. The effects of caretaker-primate relationships on primates in the laboratory

    Contributor(s):: Waitt, C., Buchanan-Smith, H. M., Morris, K.

    As contact with caretakers is likely to make up the majority of human-primate interactions in laboratories, caretakers represent an important influence in the lives of captive primates. The aim of this study was to determine how caretaker-primate relationships affected the behaviour of primates...

  8. The influence of the location of a nest box in an individually ventilated cage on the preference of mice to use it

    Contributor(s):: Kostomitsopoulos, N. G., Paronis, E., Alexakos, P., Balafas, E., Loo, P. van, Baumans, V.

    The improvement of housing conditions for mice by using environmental enrichment materials is of high concern for the scientific community. Plastic, autoclavable nest boxes are commercially available and ready to use for specific cases such as in individually ventilated cages, metabolic cages, or...

  9. The lower row monkey cage: an overlooked variable in biomedical research

    Contributor(s):: Reinhardt, V., Reinhardt, A.

    A survey of 96 primatological articles revealed that cage location of research monkeys is rarely mentioned, although the environment of upper and lower row-housed animals markedly differs in terms of light quality, light intensity, and living dimension. Not accounting for these uncontrolled...

  10. The myth of the aggressive monkey

    Contributor(s):: Reinhardt, V.

    Captive rhesus macaques are not naturally aggressive, but poor husbandry and handling practices can trigger their aggression toward conspecifics and toward the human handler. The myth of the aggressive monkey probably is based on often not taking into account basic ethological principles when...

  11. The physiological and behavioural impact of sensory contact among unfamiliar adult mice in the laboratory

    Contributor(s):: Rettich, A., Kasermann, H. P., Pelczar, P., Burki, K., Arras, M.

    Housing mice in the laboratory in groups enables social interaction and is the way a laboratory should house mice. However, adult males show reciprocal aggression and are therefore frequently housed individually. Alternatively, a grid divider, which allows sensory contact by sight and smell but...

  12. The poor contribution of chimpanzee experiments to biomedical progress

    Contributor(s):: Knight, A.

    Biomedical research on captive chimpanzees incurs substantial nonhuman animal welfare, ethical, and financial costs that advocates claim result in substantial advancements in biomedical knowledge. However, demonstrating minimal contribution toward the advancement of biomedical knowledge...

  13. The use of cage enrichment to reduce male mouse aggression

    Contributor(s):: Ambrose, N., Morton, D. B.

    The complete cleaning of cages has been shown to reduce the level of intermale aggression in mice. This study investigated the effects of the addition of enrichment objects on post cage-cleaning aggression in male BALB/c mice. Enrichment objects were found to significantly reduce aggressive...

  14. The use of positive reinforcement training techniques to enhance the care, management, and welfare of primates in the laboratory. (Training Nonhuman Primates Using Positive Reinforcement Techniques)

    Contributor(s):: Laule, G. E., Bloomsmith, M. A., Schapiro, S. J.

    Handled frequently and subjected to a wide range of medical procedures that may be particularly invasive, nonhuman animals in a laboratory setting have unique needs. To produce the most reliable research results and to protect and enhance the well-being of the animals, it is desirable to perform...

  15. Training common marmosets ( Callithrix jacchus ) to cooperate during routine laboratory procedures: ease of training and time investment. (Training Nonhuman Primates Using Positive Reinforcement Techniques)

    Contributor(s):: McKinley, J., Buchanan-Smith, H. M., Bassett, L., Morris, K.

    The first author trained 12 laboratory-housed common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) in pairs to assess the practicality of positive reinforcement training as a technique in the management of these nonhuman animals. Behaviours taught were target training to allow homecage weighing and providing...

  16. Training nonhuman primates to cooperate with scientific procedures in applied biomedical research. (Training Nonhuman Primates Using Positive Reinforcement Techniques)

    Contributor(s):: Scott, L., Pearce, P., Fairhall, S., Muggleton, N., Smith, J.

    This report provides a brief overview of aspects of training nonhuman primates who have been, and continue to be, used in this laboratory. The research context involves applied behavioral studies in which animals are trained to perform complex operant behavioral sequences, often in their homecage...

  17. Urinary corticosterone levels in mice in response to intraperitoneal injections with saline

    Contributor(s):: Meijer, M. K., Lemmens, A. G., Zutphen, B. F. M. van, Baumans, V.

    The concept of refinement is an important issue in the field of laboratory animal science. Refinement-based research aims to improve animal welfare, to increase the reliability of experimental outcome, and to diminish variation. In search of refinement of experimental techniques, this study...

  18. Use of PVC conduits by rats of various strains and ages housed singly and in pairs

    Contributor(s):: Galef, B. G., Jr., Sorge, R. E.

    This study observed the frequency with which laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) entered polyvinylchloride (PVC) conduits placed in their cages to provide environmental enrichment. The use of PVC conduits by Norway rats varied with subjects' strain, age, sex and housing condition. Adult male...

  19. Working with rather than against macaques during blood collection. (Training Nonhuman Primates Using Positive Reinforcement Techniques)

    Contributor(s):: Reinhardt, V.

    Training macaques to cooperate during blood collection is a practicable and safe alternative to the traditional procedure implying forced restraint. It takes a cumulative total of about 1 hr to train an adult female or adult male rhesus macaque successfully to present a leg voluntarily and accept...

  20. Orientations to nonhuman animal welfare: a view from the border

    Contributor(s):: Faver, C. A., Munoz, J. D.

    This study employed an online survey to investigate the nonhuman animal welfare attitudes and behaviors of 104 social work students (85% female) enrolled in a Hispanic-serving university near the U.S.-Mexico border. Approximately three-fourths of the respondents were moderately or very concerned...