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  1. A comparison of cell-mediated immune responses in rhesus macaques housed singly, in pairs, or in groups

    Contributor(s):: Schapiro, S. J., Nehete, P. N., Perlman, J. E., Sastry, K. J.

    A variety of psychosocial factors have been shown to influence immunological responses in laboratory primates. The present investigation examined the effects of social housing condition on cell-mediated immune responses, comparing rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in three housing conditions...

  2. A note on enrichment for spontaneous tool use by chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes )

    Contributor(s):: Morimura, N.

    In the wild, decisions as to "when", "where", and "how" an animal acts are made based on the individual's own choice; in contrast, the behaviour of wild animals in captivity may be under human control. To improve the physical and psychological well-being of captive animals, we should ensure that...

  3. Behavioural effects of environmental enrichment for individually caged rabbits

    Contributor(s):: Lidfors, L.

    The behavioural effects of providing 60 male New Zealand laboratory rabbits with one of four objects in their individual cages as environmental enrichment were investigated. The rabbits were assigned to one of 5 treatments by a random procedure; hay in a water bottle, grass-cubes, two gnawing...

  4. Development of stereotypies and polydipsia in wild caught bank voles ( Clethrionomys glareolus ) and their laboratory-bred offspring. Is polydipsia a symptom of diabetes mellitus?

    Contributor(s):: Schoenecker, B., Heller, K. E., Freimanis, T.

    The development of stereotypies and polydipsia was studied in wild caught bank voles (P: n=92) and their laboratory-bred offspring (F1: n=248). All animals were kept isolated in barren cages in the laboratory. In the P generation, no individuals developed stereotypies, but 22% developed...

  5. Effects of a gentling programme on the behaviour of laboratory rats towards humans

    Contributor(s):: Maurer, B. M., Doring, D., Scheipl, F., Kuchenhoff, H., Erhard, M. H.

    The present study investigated the effects of a gentling programme on the later behaviour of laboratory rats towards humans. For that purpose, 24 female Wistar rats were purchased from a laboratory animal breeding facility at the age of 21 days and allocated, genetically balanced, to an...

  6. Genetic analysis of reactivity to humans in Goettingen minipigs

    Contributor(s):: Kohn, F., Sharifi, A. R., Simianer, H.

    Goettingen minipigs are laboratory animals with an increasing demand over the last few years. At the moment, Goettingen minipigs are not selected for a low reactivity to humans and this trait is not included in the breeding programme. However, it is obvious that there is a need for genetically...

  7. Guidelines for the ethical use of animals in applied ethology studies. (International Society for Applied Ethology Special Issue)

    Contributor(s):: Sherwin, C. M., Christiansen, S. B., Duncan, I. J., Erhard, H. W., Lay, D. C., Jr., Mench, J. A., O'Connor, C. E., Petherick, J. C.

    Applied ethology has a continuing interest in the promotion of animal welfare and the ethical treatment of animals used in research. However, in contrast to some other fields involving animal research, there are currently no guidelines written specifically for those engaged in applied ethology...

  8. Indication of a genetic basis of stereotypies in laboratory-bred bank voles ( Clethrionomys glareolus )

    Contributor(s):: Schoenecker, B., Heller, K. E.

    The development of stereotypies was studied in 2 successive laboratory-bred generations of bank voles representing F1 (n=248) and F2 (n=270) of an originally wild caught stock. It was shown that the propensity to develop stereotypies under barren housing conditions strongly relates to the same...

  9. Influence of cage enrichment on aggressive behaviour and physiological parameters in male mice

    Contributor(s):: Loo, P. L. P. van, Kruitwagen, C. L. J. J., Koolhaas, J. M., Weerd, H. A. van de, Zutphen, L. F. M. van, Baumans, V.

    From welfare perspective group, housing of mice is preferred over individual housing. Group housing of male laboratory mice, however, often leads to problems due to excessive aggressive behaviour. In our search for management and housing modifications to decrease aggression in group-housed male...

  10. ISAE international congresses, 1999-2001. (International Society for Applied Ethology Special Issue)

    Contributor(s):: Widowski, T., Mench, J.

    This special issue of Applied Animal Behaviour Science contains topics on the International Society for Applied Ethology (ISAE) congress. The 8 topics include (1) human-animal interactions in livestock production; (2) applied and basic research in farm animal welfare; (3) transferring the results...

  11. Rats show aversion to argon-induced hypoxia

    Contributor(s):: Makowska, I. J., Niel, L., Kirkden, R. D., Weary, D. M.

    Laboratory rats and mice are commonly killed using carbon dioxide gas. However, recent studies have shown that rodents find this gas aversive. Argon is a tasteless and odourless gas that causes hypoxia by displacing air. The aim of the present study was to use approach-avoidance testing to...

  12. The effect of the functional attributes of objects within the caged environment on interaction time in laboratory rats

    Contributor(s):: Williams, C. M., Hanmer, L. A., Riddell, P. M.

    Determining rat preferences for, and behaviour towards, environmental enrichment objects allows us to provide evidence-based information about how the caged environment may be enriched. In recent years there have been many studies investigating the preferences of laboratory rodents for a wide...

  13. Training rats to search and alert on contraband odors

    Contributor(s):: Otto, J., Brown, M. F., Long, W., III

    This paper describes a series of behavioral experiments that were conducted to test a new concept using rats to detect contraband odors, such as explosives, drugs, or prohibited foodstuffs. Under this concept, the trained alerting behaviour of rats is remotely monitored by humans and/or computers...

  14. Understanding behaviour: the relevance of ethological approaches in laboratory animal science. (International Society for Applied Ethology Special Issue)

    Contributor(s):: Olsson, I. A. S., Nevison, C. M., Patterson-Kane, E. G., Sherwin, C. M., Weerd, H. A. van de, Wurbel, H.

    Applied ethology has traditionally focused on farm animal species, whereas there has been much less research directed at understanding the behaviour of laboratory animals in relation to their use as models in research. In this paper, we identify four areas in which ethological approaches could...

  15. A behavioural comparison of New Zealand White rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ) housed individually or in pairs in conventional laboratory cages

    Contributor(s):: Chu, L. R., Garner, J. P., Mench, J. A.

    Despite their gregarious nature, rabbits used for research are often housed individually due to concerns about aggression and disease transmission. However, conventional laboratory cages restrict movement, and rabbits housed singly in these cages often perform abnormal behaviours, an indication...

  16. Effects of a running wheel-igloo enrichment on aggression, hierarchy linearity, and stereotypy in group-housed male CD-1 (ICR) mice

    Contributor(s):: Howerton, C. L., Garner, J. P., Mench, J. A.

    Environmental enrichment is an important strategy to improve the welfare of laboratory animals. Running wheels might serve as enrichment devices for laboratory mice, since mice use them extensively when they are provided. However, competition among group-housed mice for such highly preferred...

  17. Effects of cage-cleaning frequency on laboratory rat reproduction, cannibalism, and welfare

    Contributor(s):: Burn, C. C., Mason, G. J.

    Regular cage-cleaning is important for health, but for breeding rats it disrupts the nest and removes olfactory signals important for parental care. To investigate how different cage-cleaning frequencies affect breeding rats' health and welfare, we monitored reproductive output, pup mortality,...

  18. Short-term social memory in the laboratory rat: its susceptibility to disturbance

    Contributor(s):: Burman, O. H. P., Mendl, M.

    Adult rats presented with a juvenile conspecific for 5 min on 2 occasions, separated by a 15-min inter-exposure interval (IEI), investigated the reintroduced juvenile significantly less in the second encounter. It is suggested that this was because the adult rats remembered the identity of the...

  19. Ethical issues faced by field primatologists: asking the relevant questions. (Special Issue: Ethical Issues in field primatology.)

    Contributor(s):: Fedigan, L. M.

    Field primatologists face unusual ethical issues. We study animals rather than people and receive research approval from animal care rather than ethics committees. However, animal care evaluation forms are developed from concerns about laboratory animal research and are based on the "Three R's"...

  20. Animal ethics and toxicology

    Contributor(s):: Rollin, B. E.