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  1. Definition of the concept of "humane treatment" in relation to food and laboratory animals

    Contributor(s):: Rollin, B. E.

  2. Description and validation of a preference test system to evaluate housing conditions for laboratory mice

    Contributor(s):: Blom, H. J. M., Vorstenbosch, C. J. A. H. V. van, Baumans, V., Hoogervost, M. J. C., Beynen, A. C., Zutaphen, L. F. M. van

  3. Developing the ethics component of the UK modular training system for laboratory animal scientists: a LASA [Laboratory Animal Science Association] workshop report

    Contributor(s):: Jennings, M., Hawkins, P.

  4. Development and application of a preference test system to evaluate housing conditions for laboratory rats

    Contributor(s):: Blom, H. J. M., Tintelen, G. van, Baumans, V., Broek, J. van den, Beynen, A. C.

    The preferences of rats for various heights and light intensities in cages were studied. Preferences were expressed as relative dwelling times (RDT) per cage. In the first experiment, using 9 female and 9 male Wistar rats, the females prefered lower cages (height 80 mm, RDT 29.9

  5. Development of stereotypies and polydipsia in wild caught bank voles ( Clethrionomys glareolus ) and their laboratory-bred offspring. Is polydipsia a symptom of diabetes mellitus?

    Contributor(s):: Schoenecker, B., Heller, K. E., Freimanis, T.

    The development of stereotypies and polydipsia was studied in wild caught bank voles (P: n=92) and their laboratory-bred offspring (F1: n=248). All animals were kept isolated in barren cages in the laboratory. In the P generation, no individuals developed stereotypies, but 22% developed...

  6. Disruptive effects of standard husbandry practice on laboratory rat social discrimination

    Contributor(s):: Burman, O. H. P., Mendl, M.

    Elements of husbandry procedures, such as handling, may disrupt rodent social behaviour. Such effects may be contingent upon the familiarity between individuals and upon the quality and quantity of the disruption. We investigated this issue using laboratory rats. We placed 36 rats into groups of...

  7. Distribution of nonhuman animal versus nonanimal research funding at four U.S. Institutions in fiscal year 2000

    Contributor(s):: Bogle, R., Greek, R.

    Much controversy exists concerning the use of nonhuman animals in biomedical research. Textbooks, articles, and journals are dedicated to studying animal models, studying alternatives, and debating various aspects of the issue. Surprisingly however, very little information exists on how many...

  8. Do audible and ultrasonic sounds of intensities common in animal facilities affect the autonomic nervous system of rodents?

    Contributor(s):: Burwell, A. K., Baldwin, A. L.

    In animal facilities, noises, often poorly controlled, occur over a wide range of frequencies and intensities. Evidence demonstrates that audible noise and ultrasound have deleterious effects on rodent physiology, but it is not known how they affect the autonomic nervous system (ANS). This study...

  9. Do male mice prefer or avoid each other's company? Influence of hierarchy, kinship, and familiarity

    Contributor(s):: Loo, P. L. P. van, Groot, A. C. de, Zutphen, B. F. M. van, Baumans, V.

    In the laboratory, individual housing of male mice who otherwise show aggression is common practice. Because mice are a social species, the question arises whether this procedure is right from the animals' point of view. This study tested the preference of subordinate animals for their dominant...

  10. Do regulators of animal welfare need to develop a theory of psychological well-being? (Special Issue: Two systems - one world.)

    Contributor(s):: Haynes, R. P.

  11. Effect of cage size on the ontogeny of stereotyped behaviour in gerbils

    Contributor(s):: Wiedenmayer, C.

  12. Effect of flow rate on aversion to gradual-fill carbon dioxide exposure in rats

    | Contributor(s):: Niel, L., Stewart, S. A., Weary, D. M.

    Laboratory rats are commonly killed by a gradually increasing concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2), but an optimal flow rate for minimizing distress during this procedure has not yet been identified. While fast flow rates minimize time to unconsciousness, slow flow rates may allow an animal to...

  13. Effect of group housing and oral corticosterone administration on weight gain and locomotor development in neonatal rats

    | Contributor(s):: Young, L. A., Pavlovska-Teglia, G., Stodulski, G., Hau, J.

  14. Effective searching of the scientific literature for alternatives: search grids for appropriate databases

    | Contributor(s):: Hart, L. A., Wood, M. W., Weng, H. Y.

    Researchers searching for alternatives to painful procedures that involve animals may find that the dispersed relevant literature and the array of databases make the search challenging and even onerous. This paper addresses a significant gap that exists for researchers, in identifying appropriate...

  15. Effects of a gentling programme on the behaviour of laboratory rats towards humans

    | Contributor(s):: Maurer, B. M., Doring, D., Scheipl, F., Kuchenhoff, H., Erhard, M. H.

    The present study investigated the effects of a gentling programme on the later behaviour of laboratory rats towards humans. For that purpose, 24 female Wistar rats were purchased from a laboratory animal breeding facility at the age of 21 days and allocated, genetically balanced, to an...

  16. Effects of a running wheel-igloo enrichment on aggression, hierarchy linearity, and stereotypy in group-housed male CD-1 (ICR) mice

    | Contributor(s):: Howerton, C. L., Garner, J. P., Mench, J. A.

    Environmental enrichment is an important strategy to improve the welfare of laboratory animals. Running wheels might serve as enrichment devices for laboratory mice, since mice use them extensively when they are provided. However, competition among group-housed mice for such highly preferred...

  17. Effects of cage-cleaning frequency on laboratory rat reproduction, cannibalism, and welfare

    | Contributor(s):: Burn, C. C., Mason, G. J.

    Regular cage-cleaning is important for health, but for breeding rats it disrupts the nest and removes olfactory signals important for parental care. To investigate how different cage-cleaning frequencies affect breeding rats' health and welfare, we monitored reproductive output, pup mortality,...

  18. Effects of environmental enrichment for mice: variation in experimental results

    | Contributor(s):: Weerd, H. A. van de, Aarsen, E. L., Mulder, A., Kruitwagen, C. L. J. J., Hendriksen, C. F. M., Baumans, V.

    This study focused on the effects of different enriched environments for mice in a number of behavioural and physiological parameters in 2 routine laboratory testing procedures: potency testing for tetanus vaccine and stress-induced hyperthermia. The variability in the results was studied by...

  19. Effects of housing on social preference and behaviour in male golden hamsters ( Mesocricetus auratus )

    | Contributor(s):: Arnold, C. E., Estep, D. Q.

  20. Effects of novelty on rats' responses to CO<sub>2</sub>; exposure

    | Contributor(s):: Niel, L., Kirkden, R. D., Weary, D. M.

    Laboratory rats are routinely killed using a gradually increasing concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) gas. However, CO2 exposure has been shown to cause aversion and to increase exploratory and escape behaviours in rats. We examined whether these responses are due, in part, to novelty, using...