Effects of physical activity and group size on animal welfare in laboratory rats
Contributor(s):: Spangenberg, E., Dahlborn, K., Essen-Gustavsson, B., Cvek, K.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether moderate physical activity and group size influence physical fitness, the level of social interactions in the home cage and rats' performance in the Elevated Plus Maze and a handling test. Forty-eight male Sprague Dawley rats were kept in groups of...
Effects of prenatal stress on behaviour of offspring of laboratory and farmed mammals
Contributor(s):: Braastad, B. O.
Research on effects of stress experienced by pregnant females on the sex-ratio, behaviour and reproductive success of their offspring is reviewed. Implications of such effects on the behaviour and welfare of farm, zoo and pet animals are discussed.
Enhancing quality of life for dogs and cats in confined situations
Contributor(s):: Timmins, R. P., Cliff, K. D., Day, C. T., Hart, B. L., Hart, L. A., Hubrecht, R. C., Hurley, K. F., Phillips, C., Rand, J. S., Rochlitz, I., Serpell, J. A., Zawistowski, S. L.
An international panel of experts in the fields of canine and feline health, welfare and behaviour conducted an online discussion addressing two questions: (1) how can one define quality of life (QoL) for dogs and cats in confined living situations, such as laboratories; and (2) what additional...
Enrichment of laboratory caging for rats: a review
Contributor(s):: Patterson-Kane, E. G.
Rats are well-understood and widely used laboratory species that should be provided with environmentally enriched caging in line with modern animal welfare guidelines. This paper reviews which sources of enrichment are effective and should be prioritized, and how methods for providing enrichment...
Environmental enrichment alters the behavioral profile of ratsnakes ( Elaphe )
Contributor(s):: Almli, L. M., Burghardt, G. M.
This study investigated the effects of environmentally enriched and standard laboratory housing conditions on behavioral performance in 16 subadult ratsnakes (Elaphe obsoleta) using a split-clutch design. In a problem-solving task, snakes housed in enriched environments (EC) exhibited shorter...
Environmental enrichment: a GAP analysis. (Special Issue: Conservation, enrichment and animal behavior.)
Contributor(s):: Azevedo, C. S. de, Cipreste, C. F., Young, R. J.
GAP analyses are tools used to inform us about the short-comings of a scientific area or necessities in social-economic problems. In the last 20 years, environmental enrichment as an area of scientific investigation has come of age; this can be clearly seen by the number of publications produced...
Environmentally enriched housing for cats when housed singly
Contributor(s):: Loveridge, G. G., Horrocks, L. J., Hawthorne, A. J.
Ethical and behavioural issues in rodent experimentation
Contributor(s):: Alleva, E., Laviola, G.
Ethical issues faced by field primatologists: asking the relevant questions. (Special Issue: Ethical Issues in field primatology.)
Contributor(s):: Fedigan, L. M.
Field primatologists face unusual ethical issues. We study animals rather than people and receive research approval from animal care rather than ethics committees. However, animal care evaluation forms are developed from concerns about laboratory animal research and are based on the "Three R's"...
Ethics and welfare of animals used in education: an overview
Contributor(s):: King, L. A.
Ethical, regulatory and scientific issues arise from the use of animals in education, from secondary level schooling through to veterinary and medical training. A utilitarian cost-benefit analysis can be used to assess whether animals should be used in scientific education. The 'benefit' aspect...
Ethics of feeding: the omnivore dilemma
Contributor(s):: Kasanen, I. H. E., Sorensen, D. B., Forkman, B., Sandoe, P.
The way in which animals are fed is an important aspect of their welfare. Not only does food provide the energy and nutrients vital for survival, but feeding is also associated with a number of other factors contributing to the well-being of animals. The feeding method can determine the animals'...
Ethics: views from IACUC members
Contributor(s):: Houde, L., Dumas, C., Leroux, T.
Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) members were interviewed on various ethical matters, including ethics, animal ethics, science and ethics, and the use of animals in research, in order to explore their implicit ethical framework. The results revealed that IACUC members entertain...
Euthanasia methods, corticosterone and haematocrit levels in Xenopus laevis : evidence for differences in stress?
Contributor(s):: Archard, G. A., Goldsmith, A. R.
Amphibians, like other vertebrates, respond to acute stressors by releasing glucocorticoid steroid hormones that mediate physiological and behavioural responses to stress. Measurement of stress hormones provides a potential means to improve the welfare of laboratory animals. For example,...
Fear-related behaviour in two mouse strains differing in litter size
Contributor(s):: Janczak, A. M., Braastad, B. O., Bakken, M.
The fear-related behaviour of a mouse strain selected over 101 generations for high litter size was compared with that of a randomly selected strain. The H-strain, selected for large litter size, had a mean litter size at birth of 21.5+or-3.5 pups. The randomly bred C-strain has a mean litter...
Flaws in federal regulations pertaining to the welfare of primates kept in research institutions
Contributor(s):: Reinhardt, V.
Federal welfare regulations for primates kept in research laboratories fail to (a) include recommendations pertaining to the legal requirement of the avoidance of stress and unnecessary discomfort during handling procedures, (b) specify how the legally required "uniform illumination" can be...
Foraging enrichment for laboratory rats
Contributor(s):: Johnson, S. R., Patterson-Kane, E. G., Niel, L.
The provision of foraging opportunities may be a simple way of improving an animal's welfare, but this approach has been neglected for laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus). Standard housing contains little enrichment, and food is often provided ad libitum, which may result in inactivity and...
FRAME: the early days. (Special Issue: Animal experimentation and the Three Rs: past, present, and future.)
Contributor(s):: Rowan, A. N.
Frequency of feeding enrichment and response of laboratory nonhuman primates to unfamiliar people
Contributor(s):: Baker, K. C., Springer, D. A.
Although environmental enhancement plans for nonhuman primates vary between facilities, feeding enrichment represents a component of most programs. As part of a facility's feeding enrichment program, offering hand-fed food items by trained staff provides an opportunity for positive human...
From house mouse to mouse house: the behavioural biology of free-living Mus musculus and its implications in the laboratory
Contributor(s):: Latham, N., Mason, G.
Understanding a species' behaviour in natural conditions can give insights into its development, responses and welfare in captivity. Here, we review research and pest control literatures on the free-living house mouse (Mus musculus), analysing its sensory world, developmental processes and...
Gas killing of rats: the effect of supplemental oxygen on aversion to carbon dioxide
Contributor(s):: Kirkden, R. D., Niel, L., Stewart, S. A., Weary, D. M.
High concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), used for killing laboratory rodents, are known to be more strongly aversive to rats than sweet food items are attractive. This study investigated whether the maintenance of a high oxygen (O2) concentration, using a gas mixture of 70% CO2 and 30% O2,...