Science, policy, and the public discourse of shark "attacks": a proposal for reclassifying human-shark interactions.
Contributor(s):: Christopher Neff, Robert E. Hueter
There are few phrases in the Western world that evoke as much emotion or as powerful an image as the words “shark” and “attack.” However, not all “shark attacks” are created equal. Under current labels, listings of shark attack may even include instances where...
Sociocultural aspects of attitudes toward marine animals: a focus group analysis
Contributor(s):: Unna Lassiter, Jennifer R. Wolch
In geographic research of the past decade, the understanding of nature-society relations has broadened to include ideas about our relationship with and attitudes toward animals. In this study, we explore the relationship between attitudes toward marine animals and...
Using self-selection to evaluate the acceptance of a new diet formulation by farmed fish
Contributor(s):: Carlberg, H., Cheng, Ken, Lundh, T., Brannas, E.
The evaluation of new diet composition is commonly achieved by performing time-consuming growth trials, which may negatively impact the welfare of a large number of fish if the feed is not accepted. Instead, the fish's behavioural responses to a new diet composition can be used as a first step in...
Developing a Catalog of Socio-Sexual Behaviors of Beluga Whales ( Delphinapterus leucas ) in the Care of Humans
Contributor(s):: Heather M Hill, Sarah Dietrich, Deirdre Yeater, Mariyah McKinnon, Malin Miller, Steve Aibel, Al Dove
The repertoire of socio-sexual and sexual behaviors of cetaceans is relatively unknown. The purpose of the current study was to advance the existing knowledge of socio-sexual behavior of beluga whales through the development of a behavioral catalog that lists the full repertoire of sexual and...
United States v. Hayashi: Taking Aim at the Marine Mammal Protection Act
Contributor(s):: Marc A. Yaggi
The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) was enacted in 1972, in an effort to curb the increasing fatality rates of marine mammals that were caused, in part, by fishermen. Upon enacting the MMPA, Congress implemented a "taking" provision - the core provision - which prohibits the...
Extinction Risk and Conservation of the World's Sharks and Rays
Contributor(s):: Nicholas K. Dulvy, Sarah L. Fowler, John A. Musick, Rachel D. Cavanagh, Peter M. Kyne, Lucy R. Harrison, John K. Carlson, Lindsay N.K. Davidson, Sonja V. Fordham, Malcolm P. Francis, Caroline M. Pollock, Colin A. Simpfendorfer, George H. Burgess, Kent E. Carpenter, Leonard J.V. Compagno, David A. Ebert, Claudine Gibson, Michelle R. Heupel, Suzanne R. Livingstone, Jonnell C. Sanciangco, John D. Stevens, Sarah Valenti, William T. White
The rapid expansion of human activities threatens ocean-wide biodiversity. Numerous marine animal populations have declined, yet it remains unclear whether these trends are symptomatic of a chronic accumulation of global marine extinction risk. We present the first systematic analysis of threat...
Cuttlefish in captivity: an investigation into housing and husbandry for improving welfare
Contributor(s):: Tonkins, B. M., Tyers, A. M., Cooke, G. M.
The European cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) is often kept in public aquaria, is becoming more common in aquaculture, and is also the most frequently used cephalopod in European research. Since 1st January 2013, all cephalopods ( Mollusca) have been protected under UK/EU law (A(SP)A 1986,...
Aquarium Fish Medicine
Contributor(s):: Candace J. Carter, Mary Ann Nieves
The keeping of ornamental fish may be the most popular animal-oriented hobby in the United States. One household in every three owns and cares for some type of pet fish. In 1985, approximately $200 million was spent on aquarium fish retail sales. An additional $289 million was spent on aquarium...
Consistent individual differences in the behavioural responsiveness of adult male cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis)
Contributor(s):: Carere, C., Grignani, G., Bonanni, R., Gala, M. della, Carlini, A., Angeletti, D., Cimmaruta, R., Nascetti, G., Mather, J. A.
Consistent individual differences in clusters of behaviour (animal personalities) are being increasingly recognized by researchers of different disciplines, but studies on invertebrates are still scanty. In order to test for the presence of personality-like individual profiles we assessed the...
Survival of bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops sp.) calves at a wild dolphin provisioning program, Tangalooma, Australia
Contributor(s):: Neil, D. T., Holmes, B. J.
Mortality of calves born to provisioned mothers is identified in the literature as an issue of concern in dolphin provisioning programs. Wild dolphin provisioning at Tangalooma, Moreton Island, Australia has been occurring since 1992. Each evening, up to eight dolphins are provided with fish in a...
Running into Whales: The History of the North Pacific from below the Waves
Contributor(s):: Jones, Ryan Tucker
Behavior of a solitary sociable female bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus ) off the coast of Kent, southeast England
Contributor(s):: Eisfeld, S. M., Simmonds, M. P., Stansfield, L. R.
This article provides a report of the behavior of a solitary sociable dolphin studied on the southeast coast of England in 2007. This is the first study of its kind in which behavior of such a nonhuman animal was systematically studied. By the time of this study, this young female was highly...
Effects of pool size on free-choice selections by Atlantic bottlenosed dolphins at one zoo facility
Contributor(s):: Shyan, M. R., Merritt, D., Kohlmeier, N. M., Barton, K., Tenge, J.
Dolphin pool design often derives from the concept that cetaceans are ocean based and ipso facto should live in open, deep, watery spaces. This emotionally appealing rationale is not data driven. Researchers report that in the wild, some populations of Atlantic bottlenosed dolphins Tursiops...
An empirical case study examining effectiveness of environmental enrichment in two captive Australian Sea Lions ( Neophoca cinerea )
Contributor(s):: Smith, B. P., Litchfield, C. A.
This case study examined the effect of environmental enrichment on the activity budgets of a male and female Australian Sea Lion (Neophoca cinerea) housed together at Adelaide Zoo. Using non-food-related (intrinsic) and food-related (extrinsic) enrichment objects, the study conducted an ABABA...
Operant Psychology Makes a Splash-In Marine Mammal Training (1955-1965)
Contributor(s):: Gillaspy, James Arthur, Brinegar, Jennifer L., Bailey, Robert E.
Historical knowledge of sharks: ancient science, earliest American encounters, and American science, fisheries, and utilization
Contributor(s):: Jose I. Castro
In western civilization, the knowledge of the elasmobranch or selachian fishes (sharks and rays) begins with Aristotle (384–322 B.C.). Two of his extant works, the “Historia Animalium” and the “Generation of Animals,” both written about 330 B.C., demonstrate...
The Canadian harp seal hunt: observations on the effectiveness of procedures to avoid poor animal welfare outcomes
Contributor(s):: Daoust, P. Y., Caraguel, C.
"Gift giving" by wild bottle-nose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) to humans at a wild dolphin provisioning program, Tangalooma, Australia
Contributor(s):: Holmes, B. J., Neil, D. T.
Salivary cortisol in captive dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): a non-invasive technique
Contributor(s):: Pedernera-Romano, C., Valdez, R. A., Singh, S., Chiappa, X., Romano, M. C., Galindo, F.
Conflict and reconciliation behavior trends of the bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus )
Contributor(s):: Holobinko, A., Waring, G. H.
Wild bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) populations display societal structures characterized by numerous and frequent changes in group composition, complex social relationships, and high levels of cooperation, attributes also observed in human and nonhuman primate cultures. Maintaining...