Evaluating demographic models for goat domestication using mtDNA sequences
Contributor(s):: Gerbault, P., Powell, A., Thomas, M. G.
Routes of migration and exchange are important factors in the debate about how the Neolithic transition spread into Europe. Studying the genetic diversity of livestock can help in tracing back some of these past events. Notably, domestic goat ( Capra hircus) did not have any wild progenitors (...
May 21 2015
Center for Animal Welfare Sciences Spring Symposium
Nutritional ecology of obesity: from humans to companion animals
Contributor(s):: Raubenheimer, D., Machovsky-Capuska, G. E., Gosby, A. K., Simpson, S.
We apply nutritional geometry, a framework for modelling the interactive effects of nutrients on animals, to help understand the role of modern environments in the obesity pandemic. Evidence suggests that humans regulate the intake of protein energy (PE) more strongly than non-protein energy...
Playful handling of laboratory rats is more beneficial when applied before than after routine injections
Contributor(s):: Cloutier, S., Wahl, K. L., Panksepp, J., Newberry, R. C.
The ability of positive affective states to counteract negative states engendered by routine medical procedures remains poorly studied. In laboratory rats, positive affect typically associated with rough-and-tumble play can be induced through human "hand play" - the experience of being "tickled"...
The influence of neonatal environment on piglet play behaviour and post-weaning social and cognitive development
Contributor(s):: Martin, J. E., Ison, S. H., Baxter, E. M.
Research has shown that the domestic pig is highly playful throughout its development and that play is an important aspect of social and cognitive development. Therefore, the neonatal environment is fundamental to successful stimulation of play in neonatal pigs, which could have indirect and...
The power of automated behavioural homecage technologies in characterizing disease progression in laboratory mice: a review
Contributor(s):: Richardson, C. A.
Behavioural changes that occur as animals become sick have been characterized in a number of species and include the less frequent occurrence of 'luxury behaviours' such as playing, grooming and socialization. 'Sickness behaviours' or behavioural changes following exposure to infectious agents,...
The relevance of variations in group size and phenotypic appearance on the behaviour and movement patterns of young domestic fowl
Contributor(s):: Liste, G., Campderrich, I., Beltran Heredia, I. de, Estevez, I.
Variations in the group size of laying hens might increase the risk of undesired behaviours with important consequences for the birds' health and welfare. However, larger groups housed at constant densities also translate into larger enclosures that may increase space efficiency, therefore...
The risk factors affecting the development of vent pecking and cannibalism in free-range and organic laying hens
Contributor(s):: Lambton, S. L., Knowles, T. G., Yorke, C., Nicol, C. J.
Injurious pecking remains one of the biggest animal welfare and economic challenges for free-range egg producers. This prospective epidemiological study investigated the development of vent pecking (VP) and cannibalism on 62 free-range and organic UK farms (119 flocks). Flocks were visited at 25...
Young Blond d'Aquitaine, Angus and Limousin bulls differ in emotional reactivity: relationships with animal traits, stress reactions at slaughter and post-mortem muscle metabolism
Contributor(s):: Bourguet, C., Deiss, V., Boissy, A., Terlouw, E. M. C.
The present study investigated relationships between reactivity during tests, stress reactions at slaughter and animal traits in young Blond d'Aquitaine (BA), Limousin (LI) and Angus (AN) bulls. Behavioural and physiological reactivity of animals was evaluated during rearing using a "Human test"...
Evaluation of microwave energy as a humane stunning technique based on electroencephalography (EEG) of anaesthetised cattle
Contributor(s):: Rault, J. L., Hemsworth, P. H., Cakebread, P. L., Mellor, D. J., Johnson, C. B.
Humane slaughter implies that an animal experiences minimal pain and distress before it is killed. Stunning is commonly used to induce insensibility but can lead to variable results or be considered unsatisfactory by some religious groups. Microwave energy can induce insensibility in rats, and...
Heart rate variability during a working memory task: does touching a dog or person affect the response?
Contributor(s):: Gee, N. R., Friedmann, E., Stendahl, M., Fisk, A., Coglitore, V.
The presence of a dog has been associated with reduced responses to stressors in several, but not all, previous studies. The presence of a dog has also been related to improved performance on some cognitive tasks. The current study was designed to evaluate the effect of touching a dog on stress...
The effects of an animal-assisted intervention on salivary alpha-amylase, salivary immunoglobulin A, and heart rate during forensic interviews in child sexual abuse cases
Contributor(s):: Krause-Parello, C. A., Friedmann, E.
Animal-assisted invention (AAI) in gaining attention as a therapeutic modality; however, the effect of it has not been well studied in the child welfare system. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of AAI on stress indicators (as measured by salivary alpha-amylase (sAA),...
Ethical equitation: applying a cost-benefit approach
Contributor(s):: Jones, B., McGreevy, P. D.
Impact of publicly sponsored neutering programs on animal population dynamics at animal shelters: the New Hampshire and Austin experiences
Contributor(s):: White, S. C., Jefferson, E., Levy, J. K.
This study found that government-funded surgical sterilization of companion animals has been widely promoted as a means of decreasing shelter intake and euthanasia. However, little information is available about the true impact of these programs on community and shelter nonhuman animal population...
Prolonged pain research in mice: trends in reference to the 3Rs
Contributor(s):: Balcombe, J., Ferdowsian, H., Briese, L.
This literature review documents trends in the use of mice in prolonged pain research, defined herein as research that subjects mice to a source of pain for at least 14 days. The total amount of prolonged pain research on mice has increased dramatically in the past decade for the 3 pain...
Risk factors and remediation of self-injurious and self-abuse behavior in rhesus macaques
Contributor(s):: Rommeck, I., Anderson, K., Heagerty, A., Cameron, A., McCowan, B.
Considered signs of decreased welfare - abnormal behaviors such as self-injury and self-abuse among nonhuman primates housed in the laboratory - may put into question the validity and reliability of scientific research using these animals as models. Providing environmental enrichment decreases...
Role of attachment in response to pet loss
Contributor(s):: Field, N. P., Orsini, L., Gavish, R., Packman, W.
This study examined the impact of attachment on grief severity following the death of a pet. Seventy-one participants who had lost a dog or cat within the past year completed a set of measures that included an attachment measure assessing individual differences in attachment anxiety and...
The effects of environmental control on cognition in rats ( Rattus norvegicus )
Contributor(s):: Alliger, A. A., Moller, P.
The aim of this study was to allow nonhuman animals to control their environment using operant conditioning procedures and to assess the effect of control on cognitive tasks. The study tested 4 predictions: (a) rats (Rattus norvegicus) will control a light stimulus; (b) animals will exhibit...
There's a rat in my room! Now what? Mice show no chronic physiological response to the presence of rats
Contributor(s):: Meijer, M. K., Loo, P. L. P. van, Baumans, V.
In general, guidelines on housing and care of animals in the laboratory state that rats and mice should not be housed in the same room. Mice may perceive rats as predators. Although one theory says this can cause stress, there is little scientific evidence to support this theory. In the wild,...
Using data collected for production or economic purposes to research production animal welfare: an epidemiological approach
Contributor(s):: Dewey, C., Haley, C., Widowski, T., Friendship, R., Sunstrum, J., Richardson, K.
Epidemiologists use the analyses of large data sets collected for production or economic purposes to research production nonhuman animal welfare issues in the commercial setting. This approach is particularly useful if the welfare issue is rare or hard to reproduce. However, to ensure the...