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  1. A comparison of positive reinforcement training techniques in owl and squirrel monkeys: time required to train to reliability

    Contributor(s):: Rogge, J., Sherenco, K., Malling, R., Thiele, E., Lambeth, S., Schapiro, S., Williams, L.

    Positive reinforcement training (PRT) techniques enhance the psychological well being of nonhuman primates by increasing the animal's control over his or her environment and desensitizing the animal to stressful stimuli. However, the literature on PRT in neotropical primates is limited. Here PRT...

  2. A two-choice preference assessment with five cotton-top tamarins ( Saguinus oedipus )

    Contributor(s):: Fernandez, E. J., Dorey, N. R., Rosales-Ruiz, J.

    A study selected 5 cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) located at the Frank Buck Zoo in Gainesville, Texas, for a food preference assessment. The study used a paired-choice procedure across 7 different food items for all 5 tamarins. Preferences for the food items across all the tamarins...

  3. Artificial weaning of Old World monkeys: benefits and costs

    Contributor(s):: Reinhardt, V.

    Permanent mother-infant separation prior to natural weaning is a common husbandry practice in monkey breeding colonies. In the United States, all eight Regional Primate Research Centres have such colonies. Under undisturbed conditions, Old World monkey mothers wean their infants at the age of...

  4. Bioacoustic monitoring of aggression in group-housed rhesus macaques

    Contributor(s):: McCowan, B., Rommeck, I.

    Many captive primate facilities house rhesus macaques in multimale-multifemale social groups in large enclosures that simulate the natural social and environmental features characteristic of the species, enhancing their reproductive performance as well as their psychological well-being, yet one...

  5. Blood collection procedure of laboratory primates: a neglected variable in biomedical research

    Contributor(s):: Reinhardt, V., Reinhardt, A.

    A survey of 75 biomedical articles dealing with stress-dependent blood parameters ni caged primates revealed that the conditions under which blood collection occurred were in most cases described either not at all or so haphazardly that it would be impossible to determine if humane handling...

  6. Cage use and feeding height preferences of captive common marmosets ( Callithrix j. jacchus ) in two-tier cages

    Contributor(s):: Buchanan-Smith, H. M., Shand, C., Morris, K.

    Determining appropriate feeding regimes has important welfare implications for captive primates. This study examined the preference of food bowl heights in 6 pairs of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) housed in a 2-tier cage system. Given that marmosets are arboreal and spend most of their...

  7. Determining the value of social companionship to captive tufted capuchin monkeys ( Cebus apella )

    Contributor(s):: Dettmer, E., Fragaszy, D.

    The objective of the study is to assess the magnitude of the psychological need for social companionship in pair-housed tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) (six males and 1 female). The classification of commodities as necessities or luxuries are included. The study directly compared the...

  8. Effects of single-use and group-use enrichment on stereotypy and intragroup aggressive and affiliative behaviors of a social group of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) at the Singapore Zoo

    Contributor(s):: Sha, J., Han, S., Marlena, D., Kee, J.

    Four food-based enrichment devices were used to test the effects of single-use and group-use enrichment devices on stereotypy, intragroup aggression, and affiliation in a compatible group of 5 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). All enrichment devices were found to reduce overall stereotypic...

  9. Effects of training on stress-related behavior of the common marmoset ( Callithrix jacchus ) in relation to coping with routine husbandry procedures. (Training Nonhuman Primates Using Positive Reinforcement Techniques)

    Contributor(s):: Bassett, L., Buchanan-Smith, H. M., McKinley, J., Smith, T. E.

    Using positive reinforcement, 12 common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) were trained to provide urine samples on request. The marmosets were exposed to mildly stressful, routine husbandry procedures (i.e., capture and weighing). The non-human animals spent less time inactive poststressor as...

  10. Efficient cooperative restraint training with rhesus macaques

    Contributor(s):: Bliss-Moreau, E., Theil, J., Moadab, G.

    It is sometimes necessary for nonhuman primates to be restrained during biomedical and psychosocial research. Such restraint is often accomplished using a "primate chair." This article details a method for training adult rhesus macaques to cooperate with a chair restraint procedure using positive...

  11. Evaluating paint rollers as an intervention for alopecia in monkeys in the laboratory ( Macaca nemestrina )

    Contributor(s):: Runeson, E. P., Lee, G. H., Crockett, C. M., Bellanca, R. U.

    Adult female macaques (Macaca nemestrina) in the laboratory with alopecia from known or suspected overgrooming were subjects in a study evaluating effectiveness of a grooming device. The intervention evaluated was a paint roller on a metal bar hung on the cage, replaced weekly for 6 weeks. In a...

  12. Fecal concentrations of cortisol, testosterone, and progesterone in cotton-top tamarins housed in different zoological parks: relationships among physiological data, environmental conditions, and behavioral patterns

    Contributor(s):: Fontani, S., Vaglio, S., Beghelli, V., Mattioli, M., Bacci, S., Accorsi, P. A.

    The aim of this investigation was to study the welfare of 3 captive groups of cotton-top tamarins housed in different zoological parks. Ethological observations were conducted during 1 year. In addition, fecal samples were collected and the concentrations of glucocorticoids, androgens, and...

  13. Hunting restraint by Creoles at the Community Baboon Sanctuary, Belize: a preliminary survey

    Contributor(s):: Jones, C. B., Young, J.

    This study surveyed 33 male hunters between the ages of 17 and 54 years at the Community Baboon Sanctuary (CBS), Belize, to evaluate attitudes and behaviours in relation to hunting black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra). The study defined hunting restraint as a learned predisposition not to hunt 1...

  14. Improving the welfare of captive macaques ( Macaca sp.) through the use of water as enrichment

    Contributor(s):: Robins, J. G., Waitt, C. D.

    This review evaluates the use of water as a tool for enriching the environments of macaques (Macaca sp.) in captivity. Many macaque species are known to swim and forage in water in the wild, and in-situ reports suggest that access to water promotes activity and cultural behavior. Yet, there is a...

  15. Overcoming the barriers to the retirement of Old and New World monkeys from research facilities

    Contributor(s):: Kerwin, A. M.

    In this commentary I aim to raise awareness among researchers and sanctuary directors to potential barriers to retiring Old and New World monkeys from research facilities. I define a barrier as an opinion or stereotype that prevents primate retirement from occurring on a regular basis. By...

  16. Pair housing for female longtailed and rhesus macaques in the laboratory: behavior in protected contact versus full contact

    Contributor(s):: Baker, K. C., Crockett, C. M., Lee, G. H., Oettinger, B. C., Schoof, V., Thom, J. P.

    Pair housing for caged macaques in the laboratory generally allows unrestricted tactile contact but, less commonly, may involve limited contact via grooming-contact bars or perforated panels. The purpose of using this protected contact housing, which prevents entry into pair-mates' cages,...

  17. Positive reinforcement training as a technique to alter nonhuman primate behavior: quantitative assessments of effectiveness. (Training Nonhuman Primates Using Positive Reinforcement Techniques)

    Contributor(s):: Schapiro, S. J., Bloomsmith, M. A., Laule, G. E.

    Many suggest that operant conditioning techniques can be applied successfully to improve the behavioral management of nonhuman primates in research settings. However, relatively little empirical data exist to support this claim. This article is a review of several studies that discussed applied...

  18. Positive reinforcement training moderates only high levels of abnormal behavior in singly housed rhesus macaques

    Contributor(s):: Baker, K. C., Bloomsmith, M., Neu, K., Griffis, C., Maloney, M., Oettinger, B., Schoof, V. A. M., Martinez, M.

    This study evaluated the application of positive reinforcement training (PRT) as an intervention for abnormal behaviors in singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques at 2 large primate facilities. Training involved basic control behaviors and body-part presentation. The study compared baseline...

  19. Possible costs of radio-tracking a young adult female mantled howler monkey ( Alouatta palliata ) in deciduous habitat of Costa Rican tropical dry forest

    Contributor(s):: Hilpert, A. L., Jones, C. B.

    Field experiments are required to determine the causes of the patterns identified in this report and their potential threats to the internal validity of field studies on mantled howlers. The literature on biotelemetry suggests that radio collars are likely to have deleterious effects on animals...

  20. Primate location preference in a double-tier cage: the effects of illumination and cage height

    Contributor(s):: Maclean, E. L., Prior, S. R., Platt, M. L., Brannon, E. M.

    Nonhuman primates are frequently housed in double-tier arrangements with significant differences between the environments of the upper and lower-row cages. Although several studies have investigated whether this arrangement alters monkeys' behavior, no studies have addressed the two most notable...