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  1. The effect of heat incubators on chilled mink kits

    | Contributor(s):: Castella, A., Malmkvist, J.

    Hypothermia is considered a major risk factor increasing kit mortality in farmed mink. We studied the effects of reheating chilled mink kits. From each of 27 litters, three 1-day-old kits were exposed to one of three treatments: (i) chilling and reheating in a farm incubator (INCU), (ii) chilling...

  2. The effects of farrowing nest size and width on sow and piglet behaviour and piglet survival

    | Contributor(s):: Cronin, G. M., Dunsmore, B., Leeson, E.

    The 'Werribee farrowing pen' (WFP) was developed as a loose housing alternative to the farrowing crate. The WFP occupies about twice the space of a crate and comprises 2 compartments, a 'nest' and a 'non-nest' area. The effects of 'nest' size (large: L vs. small: S) and width (wide: W vs. narrow:...

  3. The effects of the gestation and farrowing environments on sow and piglet behaviour and piglet survival and growth in early lactation

    | Contributor(s):: Cronin, G. M., Simpson, G. J., Hemsworth, P. H.

    96 Large White x Landrace pigs were housed in individual stalls or group pens during pregnancy and in conventional crates or a prototype pair-pen system during farrowing and lactation. The pair-pen system provided each sow with an area of approximately 10 msuperscript 2 and included a specific...

  4. Transportation of broilers with special reference to mortality rates

    | Contributor(s):: Bayliss, P. A., Hinton, M. H.

    At depopulation time broilers have to be transferred from the grower's house to the transport and then conveyed to the processing plant. Traditionally birds are caught by hand and crated before transport. That task is labour intensive and is often carried out during unsocial hours (night time)....

  5. Variability in the expression of maternal behaviour in primiparous sheep: effects of genotype and litter size

    | Contributor(s):: Dwyer, C. M., Lawrence, A. B.

    Focal animal observations were carried out on 58 primiparous Blackface (37 singles and 21 twins) and 57 primiparous Suffolk ewes (20 singles and 37 twins) during the 2 h after the birth of each lamb. Labour was shorter for Blackface ewes compared with Suffolk ewes (62 and 84 min respectively, P

  6. A study of rehabilitated juvenile hedgehogs after release into the wild

    | Contributor(s):: Morris, P. A., Warwick, H.

    Because many juvenile hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) are "rehabilitated" with little or no previous experience of life in the wild, a study is described in which 12 such animals were monitored after release in Devon, UK. They quickly learned their way about, built nests and found them again, and...

  7. Behaviour of silver foxes in traditional breeding boxes and in boxes with an entrance tunnel

    | Contributor(s):: Braastad, B. O.

    The periparturient behaviour of silver-fox females inside traditional and modified breeding boxes was recorded on video tape from 24 h before to 72 h after parturition for 3 diurnal periods. 20 litters had the traditional simple breeding box, 14 litters had a box with a narrow entrance tunnel....

  8. Body condition score as an indicator of ewe survival under extensive conditions

    | Contributor(s):: Morgan-Davies, C., Waterhouse, A., Pollock, M. L., Milner, J. M.

    Survival and mortality of extensive hill ewes are important commercial factors and valuable indicators of welfare, but difficult to study. Body condition scoring is a tried-and-tested management and monitoring tool which has been defined as a good predictor of fitness in ewes and is easily...

  9. Breeding amiable animals? Improving farm animal welfare by including social effects in breeding programmes

    | Contributor(s):: Rodenburg, T. B., Bijma, P., Ellen, E. D., Bergsma, R., Vries, S. de, Bolhuis, J. E., Kemp, B., Arendonk, J. A. M. van

    Social interactions between individuals, such as co-operation and competition, are key factors in evolution by natural selection. As a consequence, evolutionary biologists have developed extensive theories to understand the consequences of social interactions for response to natural selection....

  10. Canopy cover is correlated with reduced injurious feather pecking in commercial flocks of free-range laying hens

    | Contributor(s):: Bright, A., Brass, D., Clachan, J., Drake, K. A., Joret, A. D.

    Injurious feather pecking in non-cage systems is a serious economic and welfare concern for the egg-producing industry. Here, we describe the first results from an ongoing collaborative project to improve range environment and welfare of laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) within the...

  11. Causes of pre-slaughter mortality in Danish slaughter pigs with special emphasis on transport

    | Contributor(s):: Gade, B. P., Christensen, L., Baltzer, M., Petersen, V. J.

    Annual statistics for transport and lairage mortality were used to investigate factors leading to pre-slaughter mortality in Danish pigs. A subset of material from 2002, amounting to 17.8 million pigs, was used for a more detailed study of the effect of producer, haulier, abattoir and transport...

  12. Comparison of the severity of esophagogastric, lung and limb lesions at slaughter in pigs reared under standard and enriched conditions

    | Contributor(s):: Ramis, G., Gomez, S., Pallares, F. J., Munoz, A.

    Two hundred and ten pigs were reared in three groups (according to genotype) under enriched conditions of large open-front sawdust-bedded barns. Eight hundred and twenty pigs were reared under standard conditions of small 15-animal pens in a conventional barn with partially slatted floors and...

  13. Effect of catching broilers by hand or machine on rates of injuries and dead-on-arrivals

    | Contributor(s):: Knierim, U., Gocke, A.

    Catching of broilers is the first stage in the transfer of birds to the slaughterhouse. The catching process entails a high risk not only of stress but also of injury and death to the birds. Associated injury and mortality rates have important implications not only for animal welfare but also for...

  14. Effect of the halothane gene on pre-slaughter mortality in two Spanish commercial pig abattoirs

    | Contributor(s):: Fabrega, E., Diestre, A., Carrion, D., Font, J., Manteca, X.

    A total of 107 ear samples from all the pigs that died during transport or lairage at two commercial abattoirs in Spain were collected during two months (February and July 2000), in order to determine their halothane genotype (NN, Nn or nn). The frequencies of the three halothane genotypes among...

  15. Factors associated with hare mortality during coursing

    | Contributor(s):: Reid, N., McDonald, R. A., Montgomery, W. I.

    Hare coursing is a widespread but controversial activity. In an attempt to reduce hare mortality and mitigate the activity's impact on hare welfare, the Irish Coursing Club introduced measures including the compulsory muzzling of dogs in 1993. However, the efficacy of these measures remained the...

  16. Factors associated with in-transit losses of fattening pigs

    | Contributor(s):: Dewey, C. E., Haley, C., Widowski, T., Poljak, Z., Friendship, R. M.

    In-transit losses (ITL) in fattening pigs refers to mortality occurring after having left the farm but prior to stunning at the abattoir. The purpose of this observational study was to identify the associations between environmental and truck temperatures, distances travelled, feed withdrawal,...

  17. Factors influencing pig deaths during transit: an analysis of drivers reports

    | Contributor(s):: Abbott, T. A., Guise, H. J., Hunter, E. J., Penny, R. H. C., Baynes, P. J., Easby, C.

    A haulage company, transporting pigs for a marketing group, monitored information about journeys and kept records of deaths in transit (DIT). The records were analysed and factors other than genetic ones, which may contribute to the rate of DIT were considered. A strict seasonal effect was not...

  18. Loose farrowing systems: challenges and solutions

    | Contributor(s):: Wechsler, B., Weber, R.

    The use of farrowing crates is increasingly questioned from an animal welfare point of view. Even so, since a number of attempts to develop loose farrowing systems have been unsuccessful, leading to high levels of piglet mortality due in the main to crushing, many farmers remain sceptical as to...

  19. Movement and mortality of translocated urban-suburban grey squirrels

    | Contributor(s):: Adams, L. W., Hadidian, J., Flyger, V.

    During summer and autumn of 1994-1997, we determined the movements and mortality of 38 adult male Eastern grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) that had been captured in urban-suburban backyards and translocated to a large forest. The squirrels did not fare well. Squirrels not found dead or...

  20. Piglet mortality on farms using farrowing systems with or without crates

    | Contributor(s):: Weber, R., Keil, N. M., Fehr, M., Horat, R.

    Crating sows in farrowing systems greatly restricts their normal behaviour, which is usually justified by the assumption that piglet mortality is higher with loose-housed sows. Based on experiments showing that this is not the case, farrowing crates were banned in Switzerland in 1997. Since then,...