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  1. The nature and strength of social motivations in young farmed silver fox vixens ( Vulpes vulpes )

    Contributor(s):: Hovland, A. L., Mason, G. J., Kirkden, R. D., Bakken, M.

    To investigate the strength of social motivation and the motives underlying social contact in farmed silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes), we housed six young vixens continuously in a closed economy operant apparatus and measured their 'maximum price paid' when required to perform a task to obtain...

  2. The relative preferences for wood shavings or feathers in high and low feather pecking birds

    Contributor(s):: Harlander-Matauschek, A., Benda, I., Lavetti, C., Djukic, M., Bessei, W.

    High feather pecking birds (HFP) have been reported to be attracted by feathers of their pen mates while low feather pecking birds (LFP) direct most of their pecking activities towards litter. This raises the question if HFP birds show a preference for pecking at and/or ingestion of feathers over...

  3. Who needs 'behavioural needs'? Motivational aspects of the needs of animals

    Contributor(s):: Jensen, P., Toates, F. M.

    Topics discussed include the behavioural system, motivational models, external and internal factors and whether they can be dichotomized, nest building in sows, dust bathing in fowls, time factors and rewards of performance of behaviour.

  4. A note on using electronic identification technology to measure the motivation of sheep to obtain resources at pasture

    Contributor(s):: Champion, R. A., Cook, J. E., Rook, A. J., Rutter, S. M.

    Electronic animal identification was used to register when sheep moved from one place to another. Non-return gates were used to control the direction of travel of the sheep past electronic identification antennas at the boundary between two areas. A personal computer program was written to...

  5. An investigation into the causation of chewing behaviour in growing pigs: the role of exploration and feeding motivation

    Contributor(s):: Day, J. E. L., Kyriazakis, I., Lawrence, A. B.

    Pigs, with a high or low level of feeding motivation, were allowed to chew an initially novel length of tubing which exuded a sucrose solution, a saccharin solution or water. A measure of exploratory activity was obtained by also providing each pig with an identical control-tube which exuded only...

  6. Individual variation in pre-laying behaviour of hens: implications for motivation

    Contributor(s):: Appleby, M. C.

  7. Motivation in relation to the welfare of enclosed livestock

    Contributor(s):: Dellmeier, G. R.

  8. Motivation of sheep to eat clover offered in a short-term closed economy test

    Contributor(s):: Champion, R. A., Lagstrom, N. A., Rook, A. J.

    Six sheep were trained, over a period of 11 weeks, to work for a reward of freshly cut clover by walking along a variable length, U-shaped race. Training included habituation to the presence of an observer and to isolation from conspecifics. Following training, motivation to eat clover was tested...

  9. Novel object test can detect marginal differences in environmental enrichment in pigs

    Contributor(s):: Bracke, M. B. M., Spoolder, H. A. M.

    In search for a test measuring positive emotions in pigs for application in on-farm welfare auditing, three small experiments were conducted to examine the sensitivity of a novel object test designed to measure the pigs' (residual) need/motivation for enrichment. In the experiments the...

  10. Social preferences in Japanese quail chicks from lines selected for low or high social reinstatement motivation: effects of number and line identity of the stimulus birds

    Contributor(s):: Carmichael, N. L., Jones, R. B., Mills, A. D.

    Social behaviour was compared in lines of Japanese quail divergently selected over several generations for high (HSR) or low (LSR) levels of social reinstatement behaviour (selected on wheel running activity towards a box of conspecific chicks). 80 HSR and 80 LSR chicks , 7-10 days of age, were...

  11. Some investigations into motivation in the domestic fowl

    Contributor(s):: Duncan, I. J. H., Kite, V. G.

  12. The effects of genotype on physiological and behavioural responses related to the welfare of pregnant pigs

    Contributor(s):: Barnett, J. L., Hemsworth, P. H., Cronin, G. M., Winfield, C. G., McCallum, T. H., Newman, E. A.

    Plasma free-corticosteroid concentrations, aggressive behaviour and levels of motivation to interact socially and explore a novel arena were observed in an experiment to examine whether differences previously observed between pigs in neck-tethers and groups are shown by pigs of different...

  13. The ethological and physiological characteristics of cribbing and weaving horses

    | Contributor(s):: Clegg, H. A., Buckley, P., Friend, M. A., McGreevy, P. D.

    Data were gathered on the behavioural and physiological characteristics of five cribbers, six weavers and six non-stereotypic (control) mature Thoroughbred geldings for a period of 16 weeks. The horses were hired from their owners and stabled individually throughout the trial. Cribbers and...

  14. The use of a second-order schedule to measure feeding motivation in the pig

    | Contributor(s):: Day, J. E. L., Kyriazakis, I., Lawrence, A. B.

    Feeding motivation is often measured using operant conditioning; however, most of the schedules used change the underlying level of motivation or 'arouse' an individual by repeatedly presenting small quantities of feed. A solution to these problems could lie in the use of a second-order schedule...

  15. 'Pleasures', 'pains' and animal welfare: toward a natural history of affect

    | Contributor(s):: Fraser, D., Duncan, I. J. H.

  16. Assessing the relative aversiveness of two stimuli: single sheep in the arena test

    | Contributor(s):: Erhard, H. W.

    In the test described here, sheep are exposed to a situation of conflict between the motivation to approach other sheep and the motivation to avoid a human handler. The distance that the test sheep keep from the handler is a reflection of the relative aversiveness of this handler to the sheep....

  17. The push-door for measuring motivation in hens: an adaptation and a critical discussion of the method

    | Contributor(s):: Olsson, I. A. S., Keeling, L. J., McAdie, T. M.

    A study was conducted to measure the resource motivation of hens using the push-door technique with varying levels of resistance. Twelve hens were included in the experiment and underwent training with the push-door apparatus. Validation studies using food deprivation were then performed in two...

  18. The push-door for measuring motivation in hens: laying hens are motivated to perch at night

    | Contributor(s):: Olsson, I. A. S., Keeling, L. J.

    Free-living hens perch on branches in trees and domestic hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) show signs of unrest if they cannot reach a perch, suggesting that night-time perching is a behaviour that hens are motivated to perform. This motivation was quantified in two experiments using a weighted...

  19. The value of environmental resources to domestic hens: a comparison of the work-rate for food and for nests as a function of time

    | Contributor(s):: Cooper, J. J., Appleby, M. C.

    This study was conducted to investigate feeding motivation and perching motivation in laying hens. The importance of a nest box during the prelaying period was compared with the importance of food following a period of deprivation. 12 Isa Brown hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) were trained to open...