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  1. Agricultural development and associated environmental and ethical issues in South Asia

    Contributor(s):: Khan, M. A., Shah, S. A. A.

    South Asia is one of the most densely populated regions of the world, where despite a slow growth, agriculture remains the backbone of rural economy as it employs one half to over 90 percent of the labor force. Both extensive and intensive policy measures for agriculture development to feed the...

  2. Agriculture in the Slovenian transitional economy: the preservation of genetic diversity of plants and ethical consequences

    Contributor(s):: Ivancic, A., Turk, J., Rozman, C., Sisko, M.

    Slovene agriculture is going through drastic changes. Most of the land is still owned by small farmers. The production is oriented to the market and is based on modern Western technology. It is associated with increasing pollution and is becoming a serious threat to biodiversity. Many of the wild...

  3. Assessment of GM crops in commercial agriculture

    Contributor(s):: Clark, E. A., Lehman, H.

    The calibre of the recent discourse regarding genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has suffered from a lack of consensus on terminology, from the scarcity of evidence upon which to assess risk to health and to the environment, and from value differences between proponents and opponents of GMOs....

  4. Can export-oriented aquaculture in developing countries be sustainable and promote sustainable development? The shrimp case

    Contributor(s):: Rivera-Ferre, M. G.

    Industrial shrimp farming has been promoted by international development and financial institutions in coastal indebted poor countries as a way to obtain foreign exchange earnings, reimburse external debt, and promote development. The promotion of the shrimp industry is a clear example of a more...

  5. Class: an essential aspect of watershed planning

    Contributor(s):: Adams, J.

    A study of a watershed planning process in the Cache River Watershed in southern Illinois (USA) revealed that class divisions, based on property ownership, underlay key conflicts over land use and decision-making relevant to resource use. A class analysis of the region indicates that the planning...

  6. Constrained choice and ethical dilemmas in land management: environmental quality and food safety in California agriculture

    Contributor(s):: Stuart, D.

    As environmental and conservation efforts increasingly turn towards agricultural landscapes, it is important to understand how land management decisions are made by agricultural producers. While previous studies have explored producer decision-making, many fail to recognize the importance of...

  7. Critical impact assessment of organic agriculture

    Contributor(s):: Xie, Biao, Wang, XiaoRong, Ding, ZhuHong, Yang, YaPing

    Based on its production guideline, organic agriculture has set for itself the goals of minimizing all forms of pollution and maintaining sustainability of the farming system. By striving for these goals, organic farming meets the demands of an increasing number of consumers who are critical of...

  8. Environmental care in agriculture: a social perspective

    Contributor(s):: Salazar-Ordonez, M., Sayadi, S.

    At its beginning, the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) did not include measures to guide farmers in preserving ecosystems. At the same time, the social context on the 1960s and 1970s did not encourage environmental care to become a priority. Since the 1980s, new social concern...

  9. Environmental ethics beyond principle? The case for a pragmatic contextualism

    Contributor(s):: Minteer, B. A., Corley, E. A., Manning, R. E.

    Many non-anthropocentric environmental ethicists subscribe to a "principle-ist" approach to moral argument, whereby specific natural resource and environmental policy judgments are deduced from the prior articulation of a general moral principle. More often than not, this principle is one...

  10. Environmental implications of the erosion of cultural taboo practices in Awka-South local government area of Anambra State, Nigeria: 1. Forests, trees, and water resource preservation

    Contributor(s):: Anoliefo, G. O., Isikhuemhen, O. S., Ochije, N. R.

    Cultural taboos and their sanctions have helped to check abuse of the environment at least among the local people. The disregard for these traditional checks and balances especially among Christians has adversely affected their enforcement at this time. The environment and culture preservation in...

  11. Environmental risks of pesticides versus genetic engineering for agricultural pest control

    Contributor(s):: Paoletti, M. G., Pimentel, D.

    This paper discusses the environmental risks of pesticides as compared to the risks associated with the application of genetic engineering and biotechnology in agricultural pest, plant pathogen and weed control. It is suggested that in terms of environmental and public health impacts, pesticides...

  12. Ethical opportunities in global agriculture, fisheries, and forestry: the role for FAO

    Contributor(s):: Macer, D. R. J., Bhardwaj, M., Maekawa, F., Niimura, Y.

    A broad range of ethical issues in agriculture, fisheries, and forestry were identified by analysis of the literature and by interviews with Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) staff. Issues include: sharing access to and preserving natural resources; introduction of new technology;...

  13. Ethics of sustainable development - a study of Swedish regulations for genetically modified organisms

    Contributor(s):: Karlsson, M.

    In spite of stricter provisions in the new EU directive on deliberate release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), critics still advocate a moratorium on permits for cultivation of GMOs. However, in an attempt to meet concerns raised by the public, the directive explicitly gives Member...

  14. Ethological farm programs and the "market" for animal welfare

    Contributor(s):: Mann, S.

    Ethological farm programmes as they exist in Switzerland (namely, programmes paying farmers for controlled pasturage or for keeping animals in animal-friendly housing) are compared with environmental farm programmes in respect of demand and supply. Because animal welfare is not a public good but...

  15. Evolution of the stewardship idea in American country life

    Contributor(s):: Wunderlich, G.

    This paper describes development of the idea of stewardship in the US country life. Theological and secular concepts of stewardship evolved markedly in the 20th century. During this period of evolution, the American Country Life Association through its church, academic, farm organization, and...

  16. Exploring the links between science, risk, uncertainty, and ethics in regulatory controversies about genetically modified crops

    Contributor(s):: Carr, S., Levidow, L.

    Just as a stream of genetically modified crops looked set to be approved for commercial production in the European Union, the approval procedure appears to have become bogged down once again by disagreements among and within member states. Old controversies have resurfaced in new forms. The...

  17. Exponential growth, animal welfare, environmental and food safety impact: the case of China's livestock production

    Contributor(s):: Li, P. J.

    Developmental states are criticized for rapid "industrialization without enlightenment." In the last 30 years, China's breathtaking growth has been achieved at a high environmental and food safety cost. This article, utilizing a recent survey of China's livestock industry, illustrates the...

  18. Farming and landscape management: how French farmers are coping with the ecologization of their activities

    Contributor(s):: Deuffic, P., Candau, J.

    In Europe, an increasing share of public subsidies for food production is being transferred towards the production of goods and environmental services. Today, farmers hesitate between the quest for technical and economic performance, which has been the paradigm of their professional activities...

  19. From environmental ethics to nature conservation policy: Natura 2000 and the burden of proof

    Contributor(s):: Rosa, H. D., Silva, J. M. da

    Natura 2000 is a network of natural sites whose aim is to preserve species and habitats of relevance in the European Union. The policy underlying Natura 2000 has faced widespread opposition from land users and received extensive support from environmentalists. This paper addresses the ethical...

  20. Genetically modified (GM) crops: precautionary science and conflicts of interests

    Contributor(s):: Myhr, A. I., Traavik, T.

    Risk governance of GM plants and GM food products is presently subject to heated scientific and public controversies. Scientists and representatives of the biotechnology industry have dominated debates concerning safety issues. The public is suspicious with regard to the motives of scientists,...