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  1. Herd no more: livestock husbandry policies and the environment in Israel

    Contributor(s):: Wachs, E., Tal, A.

    Livestock production in both industrial systems, where livestock are packed tightly together, and in highly traditional systems, where a shepherd follows her herd in dispersed rangelands, are cited as key contributors in some of the most acute environmental problems around the globe. Israel is...

  2. Indicators of biodiversity and conservational wildlife quality on Danish organic farms for use in farm management: a multidisciplinary approach to indicator development and testing

    Contributor(s):: Noe, E., Halberg, N., Reddersen, J.

    Organic farming is expected to contribute to conserving national biodiversity on farms, especially remnant, old, and undisturbed small biotopes, forests, and permanent grassland. This objective cannot rely on the legislation of organic farming solely, and to succeed, farmers need to understand...

  3. Intensive livestock farming: global trends, increased environmental concerns, and ethical solutions

    Contributor(s):: Ilea, R. C.

    By 2050, global livestock production is expected to double - growing faster than any other agricultural sub-sector - with most of this increase taking place in the developing world. As the United Nation's four-hundred-page report, Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options,...

  4. Is policy towards intellectual property rights addressing the real problems? The case of unauthorized appropriation of genetic resources. (Special issue: Ethics as a dimension of agrifood policy: selected papers from the 4th Congress of the European

    Contributor(s):: Tsioumanis, A., Mattas, K., Tsioumani, E.

    Unauthorized appropriation of genetic resources has been described by the term "biopiracy." Technological breakthroughs including biotechnological applications can increase considerably the instrumental value of biodiversity as new products or products with new properties can be made....

  5. Local perception of environmental change in a semi-arid area of northeast Brazil: a new approach for the use of participatory methods at the level of family units

    Contributor(s):: Sieber, S. S., Medeiros, P. M., Albuquerque, U. P.

    The diversity of plant resources in the Brazilian semi-arid region is being compromised by practices related to agriculture, pastures, and forest harvesting, especially in areas containing Caatinga vegetation (xeric shrublands and thorn forests). The impact of these practices constitutes a series...

  6. Naturalness and conservation in France

    Contributor(s):: Schnitzler, A., Genot, J. C., Wintz, M., Hale, B. W.

    This article discusses the ecological and cultural criteria underlying the management practices for protected areas in France. It examines the evolution of French conservation from its roots in the 19th century, when it focused on the protection of scenic landscapes, to current times when the...

  7. Nature and nature values in organic agriculture. An analysis of contested concepts and values among different actors in organic farming

    Contributor(s):: Hansen, L., Noe, E., Hojring, K.

    The relationship between agriculture and nature is a central issue in the current agricultural debate. Organic farming has ambitions and a special potential in relation to nature. Consideration for nature is part of the guiding principals of organic farming and many organic farmers are committed...

  8. Perspectives on salmon feed: a deliberative assessment of several alternative feed resources

    Contributor(s):: Gillund, F., Myhr, A. I.

    The future of salmon aquaculture depends on the adoption of alternative feed resources in order to reduce the need for fish meal and fish oil. This may include resources such as species from lower trophic levels, by-products and by-catch from fisheries and aquaculture, animal by-products, plants,...

  9. Reflections on the growing influence of good agricultural practices in the Global South

    Contributor(s):: Amekawa, Y.

    EurepGAP is a pioneering field level food safety protocol called 'good agricultural practices' currently exercising influence over the global food quality assurance system. Developed by a consortium of major European retailers, this private standard enforces codes of conduct that address issues...

  10. Renewable resources and the idea of nature - what has biotechnology got to do with it?

    Contributor(s):: Karafyllis, N. C.

    The notion that the idea of nature is not quite the unbiased rule to design sustainable futures is obvious. But, nevertheless, questions about nature, how it functions and what it might aim at, is leading the controversial debates about both sustainability and biotechnology. These two research...

  11. Risk of public disclosure in environmental farm plan programs: characteristics and mitigating legal and policy strategies

    Contributor(s):: Yiridoe, E. K.

    Although various studies have shown that farmers believe there is the need for a producer-led initiative to address the environmental problems from agriculture, farmers in several Canadian provinces have been reluctant to widely participate in Environmental Farm Plan (EFP) programmes. Few studies...

  12. Sustainable aquaculture: are we getting there? Ethical perspectives on salmon farming. (Special Issue: Animal welfare in a broad perspective. Papers from the Nordic Network of Agriculture and Food Ethics.)

    Contributor(s):: Olesen, I., Myhr, A. I., Rosendal, G. K.

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing animal producing sector in the world and is expected to play an important role in global food supply. Along with this growth, concerns have been raised about the environmental effects of escapees and pollution, fish welfare, and consumer health as well as the...

  13. Sustainable development and Norwegian genetic engineering regulations: applications, impacts, and challenges

    Contributor(s):: Myhr, A. I., Traavik, T.

    The main purpose of The Norwegian Gene Technology Act (1993) is to enforce containment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and control of GMO releases. Furthermore, the Act intends to ensure that "production and use of GMOs should take place in an ethically and socially justifiable way, in...

  14. The design and implementation of sustainable plant diversity conservation program for alpine meadows and pastures

    Contributor(s):: Baumgartner, J., Hartmann, J.

    The paper describes the design and implementation of a plant biodiversity conservation programme that was developed under funding and time constraints for diverse ecological, social, and institutional environments. The biodiversity programme for alpine meadows and pastures in the Canton of the...

  15. The fat of the land: linking American food overconsumption, obesity, and biodiversity loss

    Contributor(s):: Cafaro, P. J., Primack, R. B., Zimdahl, R. L.

    Americans' excessive consumption of food harms their health and quality of life and also causes direct and indirect environmental degradation, through habitat loss and increased pollution from agricultural fertilizers and pesticides. We show here that reducing food consumption (and eating less...

  16. The Precautionary Principle: scientific uncertainty and omitted research in the context of GMO use and release. (Special issue: The Precautionary Principle)

    Contributor(s):: Myhr, A. I., Traavik, T.

    Commercialization of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have sparked profound controversies concerning adequate approaches to risk regulation. Scientific uncertainty and ambiguity, omitted research areas, and lack of basic knowledge crucial to risk assessments have become apparent. The...

  17. Values of farmers, sustainability and agricultural policy

    Contributor(s):: Schoon, B., Grotenhuis, R. T.

    This paper describes the feasibility of research into the relation between values of farmers and sustainability for the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture and the Dutch Federation of Agricultural and Horticultural Organizations. Firstly, a theoretical framework describes different levels of motivation...

  18. What price cheap food?

    Contributor(s):: Appleby, M. C., Cutler, N., Gazzard, J., Goddard, P., Milne, J. A., Morgan, C., Redfern, A.

    This paper is the report of a meeting that gathered many of the UK's most senior animal scientists with representatives of the farming industry, consumer groups, animal welfare groups, and environmentalists. There was strong consensus that the current economic structure of agriculture cannot...

  19. Whom to trust? Public concerns, late modern risks, and expert trustworthiness

    Contributor(s):: Munnichs, G.

    This article discusses the conditions under which the use of expert knowledge may provide an adequate response to public concerns about high-tech, late modern risks. Scientific risk estimation has more than once led to expert controversies. When these controversies occur, the public at large (as...

  20. Effects of economic downturns on mortality of wild African elephants

    Contributor(s):: Wittemyer, G.

    Declines in economic activity and associated changes in human livelihood strategies can increase threats of species overexploitation. This is exemplified by the effects of economic crises, which often drive intensification of subsistence poaching and greater reliance on natural resources. Whereas...