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  1. Animals, poor people and food insecurity: opportunities for improved livelihoods through efficient natural resource management

    Contributor(s):: Devendra, C., Chantalakhana, C.

    Poverty is a rural dilemma and continues to be a persistent multidimensional problem. It is associated with poor farmers, small farm systems, the landless, resource endowments, the socioeconomic environment and externalities. Over 75% of the poor live and work in rural areas, trapped in a...

  2. A cultural journey to the agro-food crisis: policy discourses in the EU

    Contributor(s):: Lopez-i-Gelats, F., Tabara, J. D.

    The agro-food domain in Europe is characterized by the appearance of recurrent unwanted surprises. These events, although causing obvious physical consequences, in essence depart from the expectations of the society. We argue that this unstable situation is best understood as an identity crisis...

  3. A dual-perspective model of agroecosystem health: system functions and system goals

    Contributor(s):: Haworth, L., Brunk, C., Jennex, D., Arai, S.

    The idea of agroecosystem health is understood from two perspectives: a system-functions perspective and system-goals perspective. The system functions are: integrity, resilience and efficiency and are essential to the flourishing of a biotic community. The system goals are social, natural and...

  4. A synthesis of the inter-relations animal house, environment, rentability, human and animal welfare

    Contributor(s):: Maton, A.

    Types of housing for dairy cattle, pigs and poultry are assessed in terms of environmental impact, economic factors and animal and human welfare.

  5. Agriculture in north Africa: sociocultural aspects

    Contributor(s):: Kassas, M.

    This paper documents, in the cases of Libya and Egypt, situations that occur in many other nations: conversion of farmlands to nonagricultural uses, exhaustion of nonrenewable water resources, irrigation leading to waterlogging and salinization of agricultural lands and development that does not...

  6. Are intensive agricultural practices environmentally and ethically sound?

    Contributor(s):: Lal, R., Miller, F. P., Logan, T. J.

    Improper soil management and indiscriminate use of chemicals have contributed to some severe global environmental issues, e.g., volatilization losses and contamination of natural waters by sediments and agricultural fertilizers and pesticides. The increasing substitution of energy for labour and...

  7. Biofuels: efficiency, ethics, and limits to human appropriation of ecosystem services

    Contributor(s):: Gomiero, T., Paoletti, M. G., Pimentel, D.

    Biofuels have lately been indicated as a promising source of cheap and sustainable energy. In this paper we argue that some important ethical and environmental issues have also to be addressed: (1) the conflict between biofuels production and global food security, particularly in developing...

  8. Ethical issues concerning potential global climate change on food production

    Contributor(s):: Pimentel, D.

    Burning fossil fuel in the North American continent contributes more to the CO2 global warming problem than in any other continent. The resulting climate changes are expected to alter global food production. The overall changes in temperature, moisture, carbon dioxide, insect pests, plant...

  9. Seeing the environment through Islamic eyes: application of Shariah to natural resources planning and management

    Contributor(s):: Hamed, S. E.

    A comprehensive paradigm of environmental ethics should encompass two things: (1) a particular way of life; and (2) a path to achieve that ideal. An effective paradigm must also be internally consistent, yet externally workable in the real world. On the whole, the modern environmental movement...

  10. The community vs. the market and the state: forest use in Uttarakhand in the Indian Himalayas

    Contributor(s):: Arun, Agrawal

    It has generally been presumed that local populations, if they act in their self-interest, seldom conserve or protect natural resources without external intervention or privatization. Using the example of forest management by villagers in the Indian Himalayas, this paper argues that rural...

  11. The introduction of the precautionary principle in Danish environmental policy: the case of plant growth retardants

    Contributor(s):: Lokke, S., Christensen, P.

    In this paper, we investigate the Precautionary Principle (PP) in action. Precaution is a fairly new concept in environmental policy. It emerged back in the 1960s but did not consolidate until the 1980s, as it formed part of the major changes taking place in environmental policies at that time....

  12. Time preference, the environment and the interests of future generations

    Contributor(s):: Peterson, E. W. F.

    The behaviour of individuals currently living will generally have long-term consequences that affect the well-being of those who will come to live in future. Intergenerational interdependencies of this nature raise difficult moral issues because only the current generation is in a position to...

  13. Conservation and animal welfare issues arising from forestry practices. (Special Issue: Conservation and animal welfare.)

    Contributor(s):: Blumstein, D. T.

    Forestry practices may directly kill animals as well as destroy and fragment their habitat. Even without habitat destruction, logging and its associated forest management practices (which include road building, re-forestation, and often increased recreational use) create noise, frighten animals,...

  14. Is welfare all that matters? A discussion of what should be included in policy-making regarding animals

    Contributor(s):: Yeates, J. W., Rocklinsberg, H., Gjerris, M.

    Policy-making concerned with animals often includes human interests, such as economy, trade, environmental protection, disease control, species conservation etc. When it comes to the interests of the animals, such policy-making often makes use of the results of animal welfare science to provide...

  15. The response of marine tucuxis ( Sotalia fluviatilis ) towards tourist boats involves avoidance behaviour and a reduction in foraging

    Contributor(s):: Carrera, M. L., Favaro, E. G. P., Souto, A.

    Marine ecotourism has undergone worldwide expansion in recent years, leading to increased concern regarding the impact on the environment. Despite this, however, few studies into the potential effect of tourist boats on dolphin welfare, have been carried out. In order to evaluate the impact of...

  16. Trade-offs between welfare, conservation, utility and economics in wildlife management - a review of conflicts, compromises and regulation

    Contributor(s):: Reynolds, J. C.

    In choosing among alternative wildlife management techniques, trade-offs between animal welfare and conservation, utility or economics are often apparent. This paper reviews the roles of science, scientists, regulators and educators in attempts to overcome this inter-dependence and to make...

  17. Validation of an Animal Needs Index for cattle using Test Theory

    Contributor(s):: Herva, T., Peltoniemi, O., Virtala, A. M.

    The validity of an ANI-based welfare index for cattle, the A-Index, was evaluated using Test Theory methods described for quality of life assessments in human medicine. Content validity was considered during the modification of the Index for Finnish beef production. In total, 43 items evaluating...