Differential responses of captive southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons) to the presence of faeces from different species and male and female conspecifics
Contributor(s):: Descovich, Kristin A., Lisle, Allan T., Johnston, Stephen, Nicolson, Vere, Phillips, Clive J. C.
The southern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus latifrons) appears to use scent marking, including defaecation, for social communication in the wild. This premise assumes that the receiver wombat is able to distinguish between faeces from different sources. To examine this theory, four types of...
Perception and emotions: On the relationships between stress and olfaction
Contributor(s):: Bombail, Vincent
Adaptations to the ever changing social and physical environment are necessary, sometimes involving the stress response. Olfaction is a chemical sense allowing the detection of molecules in the air, and many species rely on it for social recognition and fundamental functions such as feeding or...
Performance of domestic dogs on an olfactory discrimination of a homologous series of alcohols
Contributor(s):: Hall, Nathaniel J., Collada, Adriana, Smith, David W., Wynne, Clive D. L.
Dogs are deployed for the detection of a wide variety of chemical stimuli. Despite their wide use, little basic research has explored canine olfactory generalization and discrimination. In the present study, we assessed canine odor discrimination amongst a series of chemically-related aliphatic...
African elephants (Loxodonta africana) display remarkable olfactory acuity in human scent matching to sample performance
Contributor(s):: von Dürckheim, Katharina E. M., Hoffman, Louwrens C., Leslie, Alison, Hensman, Michael C., Hensman, Sean, Schultz, Kip, Lee, Stephen
This paper presents data on the success rate of African elephants in human scent matching to sample performance. Working with equipment and protocols similar to those used in the training of forensic canine units in Europe, scent samples were collected on cotton squares from twenty-six humans of...
The effects of green odour on domestic dogs: A pilot study
Contributor(s):: Carlone, Beatrice, Gazzano, Angelo, Gutiérrez, Jara, Sighieri, Claudio, Mariti, Chiara
Green odour (a mixture of cis-3-hexenol and trans-2-hexenal), similar to cut grass, has been demonstrated to appease subjects of various species (rats, cattle, humans etc.) subjected to different stressful stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate whether green odour has a calming effect...
Birds and Dogs: Toward a Comparative Perspective on Odor Use and Detection
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| Contributor(s):: Paola A. Prada, Kenneth G. Furton
While canines are generally considered the gold standard for olfactory detection in many situations other animals provide alternatives and offer a unique opportunity to compare biological detection capabilities. Critical components in successfully studying biological detectors is not only...
Real-Time Detection of a Virus Using Detection Dogs
| Contributor(s):: T. Craig Angle, Thomas Passler, Paul L. Waggoner, Terrence D. Fischer, Bart Rogers, Patricia K. Galik, Herris S. Maxwell
Viral infections are ubiquitous in humans, animals, and plants. Real-time methods to identify viral infections are limited and do not exist for use in harsh or resource-constrained environments. Previous research identified that tissues produce unique volatile organic compounds (VOC) and...
Using Scent Detection Dogs in Conservation Settings: A Review of Scientific Literature Regarding Their Selection
| Contributor(s):: Sarah C. Beebe, Tiffani J. Howell, Pauleen C. Bennett
Dogs are widely used for scent detection work, assisting in searches for, among other things, missing persons, explosives, and even cancers. They are also increasingly used in conservation settings, being deployed for a range of diverse purposes. Although scent detecting dogs have been used in...
Laterality in dogs in response to odour of human stress
| Contributor(s):: Maren Helene Burdahl Teien
Can dogs smell that humans are stressed? Lateralization of behaviour and neural functions is found among humans and non-human animals like mammals, amphibians, birds, fishes and reptiles. The structures in the right hemisphere tend to be more active in response to to novel stimuli, and intense...
Maintenance energy requirements of odor detection, explosive detection and human detection working dogs
| Contributor(s):: Mullis, R. A., Witzel, A. L., Price, J.
Despite their important role in security, little is known about the energy requirements of working dogs such as odor, explosive and human detection dogs. Previous researchers have evaluated the energy requirements of individual canine breeds as well as dogs in exercise roles such as sprint...
Olfactory discrimination and generalization of ammonium nitrate and structurally related odorants in Labrador retrievers
| Contributor(s):: Lazarowski, L., Foster, M. L., Gruen, M. E., Sherman, B. L., Fish, R. E., Milgram, N. W., Dorman, D. C.
A critical aspect of canine explosive detection involves the animal's ability respond to novel, untrained odors based on prior experience with training odors. In the current study, adult Labrador retrievers ( N=15) were initially trained to discriminate between a rewarded odor (vanillin) and an...
Traits of drug and explosives detection in dogs of two breeds as evaluated by their handlers and trainers
| Contributor(s):: Adamkiewicz, E., Jezierski, T., Walczak, M., Gorecka-Bruzda, A., Sobczynska, M., Prokopczyk, M., Ensminger, J.
Police dogs handlers' and trainers' opinions on Labrador retrievers (n=87) and German shepherds (n=96) trained for drugs vs. explosives detection have been compared. As most important traits in both specialties the responders indicated: (1) willingness to sniff objects, (2) concentration...
Individual differences in visual and olfactory cue preference and use by cats ( Felis catus)
| Contributor(s):: Mayes, E. R. E., Wilkinson, A., Pike, T. W., Mills, D. S.
Animals are constantly presented with stimuli through different sensory challenges, which may sometimes contain contradictory information and so they must decide which is more salient in a given situation. Both vision and olfaction are extensively utilised by the domestic cat ( Felis catus) in a...
African elephants ( Loxodonta africana) can detect TNT using olfaction: implications for biosensor application
| Contributor(s):: Miller, A. K., Hensman, M. C., Hensman, S., Schultz, K., Reid, P., Shore, M., Brown, J., Furton, K. G., Lee, S.
The impact of war on local wildlife can be devastating, the effects of which are often felt well beyond the terminus of the initial threat. In areas where wildlife experiences unrestricted movement through previously affected zones, residual, unexploded landmines present a significant and...
The Scent of Disease: Human Body Odor Contains an Early Chemosensory Cue of Sickness
| Contributor(s):: Mats J. Olsson, Johan N. Lundstrom, Bruce A. Kimball, Amy R. Gordon, Bianka Karshikoff, Nishteman Hosseini, Kimmo Sorjonen, Caroline Olgart Hoglund, Carmen Solares, Anne Soop, John Axelsson, Mats Lekander
Observational studies have suggested that with time, some diseases result in a characteristic odor emanating from different sources on the body of a sick individual. Evolutionarily, however, it would be more advantageous if the innate immune response were detectable by healthy individuals as a...
Skunks as Pets
| Contributor(s):: Elroy C. Jensen
The skunk is a small, fur bearing, carniverous, nocturnal mammal belonging to the weasel family (Mustelidae). It is easily recognized by its black and white color and noted for its strong scent. There are four species of skunks in North America, only two of these are present in the Midwest, the...
Pavlovian conditioning enhances resistance to disruption of dogs performing an odor discrimination
| Contributor(s):: Hall, Nathaniel J., Smith, David W., Wynne, Clive D. L.
Performance of Pugs, German Shepherds, and Greyhounds (Canis lupus familiaris) on an odor-discrimination task
| Contributor(s):: Hall, Nathaniel J., Glenn, Kelsey, Smith, David W., Wynne, Clive D. L.
On the Nose. Before purchasing a diabetes alert dog, read these pointers
| Contributor(s):: Cattet, Jennifer, Hardin, Dana S.
Following human-given cues or not? Horses ( Equus caballus) get smarter and change strategy in a delayed three choice task
| Contributor(s):: Lovrovich, P., Sighieri, C., Baragli, P.
To date, horses have seemed capable of using human local enhancement cues only when the experimenter remains close to the reward, since they fail to understand the communicative meaning of the human as momentary local enhancement cue (when the human is not present at the moment of the animal's...